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English name: Crimea
Official name: Qırım (墙私)
Ruling system: Parliamental Khanate
Continent, region: Europe, east
Religion: none (Teñriism in favor)
Currency: Altın (CAT)
Drives on the: right
Sea basin: Black, Azov (Atlantic basin),
Caspian (technically a lake)
Ruler: Great Khan
Capital: Kharkov (1.710.021 hab)
Largest city: Kiev (2.226.625 hab)
Area: 1.148.799 sq.km (443.554 sq.miles)
Population: 60.192.848 hab. (X.2020) ^
Crimea is the only european Parliamentary Khanate, located in Eastern Europe, spanning from Dnestr river, Bessarabia steppes, and Podol highlands in west to Western Kazakhstan steppes in east. Big and prospering cities, high Crimean Mountains in southern part of the state, seven big european rivers, ending in Crimea, and unique culture, that finds traces of itself in 2 000 BC - all this makes Crimea the No. 1 destiny to live and to visit in Eastern Europe.
After Second World War Crimea had gained historical crimean lands of Southern Bessarabia, and so all crimean people were united in one state.
Before Second World War, Crimea built an "Eastern European Cooperative Space", which included Romania, Poland, Belarus, and Georgia. But after a Sukhumi peace agreement, USSR gained all these lands except Romania and Poland, which were released. In 1991 USSR imploded, and all its countries also were released. Crimea was in union with USSR but was never annexed to it.
Modern Crimea is a state with strong state economical sector, 'asian means of production' (collectivism and practically non-existent middle class), very strong trade connections across the southern Europe and abroad.
Crimea is a nuclear state and implements an unique military strategy, as follows:
1. Crimea will not invade any country, even if bordering
2. If any country will invade Crimea (with conventional army included), Crimea can retaliate, using tactical or strategical nukes.
From 1300 BC, the name for native population was "Kimmerians". In 700 BC, Saqa tribes had arrived from Turan steppes in east. They intermarried with kimmerians, and adopted protoiranic Black Sea culture.
In 600-500 BC, Saqa and Kimmerians interacted with Greek colonizers and had modernised very quickly, giving beginning to the most sophisticated army of the antic Europe. Saqa khan Mitridat the Great was a close ally of Roman republic and had defeated many enemies of Romans in the east, namely Armenia, Persia, and others.
In 550 BC Theodosia, Kerch, Sevastopol, Kherson, Odessa, Mariupol (now Zhdanov), Tana (now Rostov) were founded by greeks.
In 300 BC Aq-Meçit was founded by Saqa tribes by greek name "Neapolis" and became a new capital. Now it is called Simferopol and is a biggest city of Lesser Crimea Prefecture.
In 600 AC turkic language was adopted by crimeans.
So Crimea was a turkic country long before 1223, when it was peacefully incorporated into Empire of Genghis-Khan.
Aq-Meçit was in decline, new capital was founded in the east of country - Qırım. Crimea had acquired that name as country name. This city had last to our days in Feodosia province, although having only 9.373 habitants.
In 1400 Theodosia city was bought by italians, namely by Genoa Republic.
In 1441 Crimea had acquired independence from Golden Horde. Some italian and greek states in mountains were defeated, and Crimea was unified. The capital of Crimea was Bağçasaray, now it is the capital of the Lesser Crimea prefecture.
In 1475 Crimea fallen under Ottoman supremacy. In 1500-s crimean tribes began harvesting and building first stable houses.
In 1571 year Devlet-Girey I The Great defeated Russia and took Moscow. Moscow's Red Square is callen upon the big fire, having place in 1571 year near Kremlin.
In 1736 year Crimea was defeated in response by Russians and temporary had lost all continental lands.
But in 1784 Crimea becomes a world-class state, because Russia defeats Turkey in harsh war. So, Turkey and Russia gone to steady decline, and Crimea modernized fastly under Shahin-Gerey Khan.
The Great Khan created some new provinces, namely in western part of country, while reconquering all the old lost land, up to Voronezh on the north.
In 1801, the coup attempt by islamic forces was failed, and the Great Khan banned islam, returning all Crimea to the Teñri faith.
In 1800-s central part of country is divided between some new provinces to reflect the fact new bassin attracts coal miners accross the world. Railway network is created in Crimea.
In 1890, the Parliament was created.
In 1905 Khan supports Japan, but parliament supports a close neighbor - Russia. So Crimea remained neutral in the russo-japanese war.
In 1914 year Crimea sides Entente but had been occupied by german and turkish armies. Russian army helped Crimea to regain independence.
In 1917 many microstates emerged from several far-flung prefectures populated by minorities.
In 1918, after Russia's Brest Peace, Crimea created an union with Japan to counter attempts of Russia to drive southwards. Khan marries Japanese princess. Japanese culture was spreading actively in Crimea, but was seen as an 'altaic revival'. Crimea supported Atatürk but cut all support after anti-armenian clashes, after that turkish capital fleed Crimea and japanese capital took over the country.
In 1928, Eastern Europe Cooperative Space agreement was signed by Crimea, Poland, Belarus, Romania, and Georgia. Their vast natural resources were exploited by overheated crimean economy.
In 1940, a Constitution was amended to include elections and to abolish noble ranks.
In 1945 after WWII, Bucaq was reincorporated in Crimea by Sukhum-Qala agreement. Crimea lost most tributaries. All romanians are expelled in exchange for gagauz türks and Tulcea slavs. The Khan adopted a new constitution, and the state welfare and political freedom were extended under the new, leftist cabinet.
In 1950-s the USSR sent financial aid to Crimea to help rebuild it. New city on the left bank of Dnepr river was called Stalinodar, as an appreciation of generosity of the soviet leader.
In 1960-s Crimea built first atomic station in Güney-Golta and became a nuclear state.
Its neutrality gave it a combined migration effect, which made Crimea into one of the most populated east european country.
Crimea is bordering Romania in southwest, Poland in west, Belarus in northwest, Russia in north, Kazakhstan in east, Caucaus Federation in southeast.
Crimea has an exit to Azov Sea, Caspian sea and Black Sea. In Black Sea Turkey and Bulgaria can be found. In Caspian Sea Iran can be found.
Crimea is subdivided into 3 nature zones. One is forests on highlands in Shepetovka, Korosten, Chernigov, Zhytomir, Kiev, Stalinodar, Shostka, Lgov, Kursk, Lesser Crimea, Theodosia, Novorossiysk, Nalchik, Pyatigorsk, Cherkessk, Maykop, Krasnodar regions.
Second zone is steppes, and all other Crimea belongs to that nature zone.
Third zone, the smallest, is the tropical beach on southern tip of country in Lesser Crimea, Feodosia, Novorossiysk, Sochi regions.
Below you can see Crimea on a political map of the world (in spoiler) and the general map (below).
Society of Crimea
Crimea is a nomad nation. It is true even in our times, in XXI century.
Classical nomads, which move around the country constantly, make up to 30% of population, while all other population is forced to resettle from their previous settlements for once in their life (when they are conscripted to army). Army term is 10 years (not months), spanning from 18 years to 28 years of citizen's age.
Army isn't a 'brute force' and 'cannon meat'. It is, basically, a big corporation of underpaid workers, which receive only housing, meal, uniform according to season, but no money. Money is saved on a temporary blocked bank account. Instead, conscripts have election rights. They construct most infrastructure projects and do the biggest amount of public works.
After 10 years of service, Crimean soldier is decommissionned, bank money is unlocked, and a Crimean citizen can use earned money to set up his own business (no tax unless it's international trade) or to get a minimal pension each month to sustain his own life. Usually, a decommissionned crimean soldier stays in the region of his service rather than returns home.
The culture of Crimea is also mixed because of this lifestyle.
It is mainly altaic, nonreligious (although there are considerable influences of Teñriism (native religion) sunni islam, buddhism, and eastern orthodoxy), and collective-centered.
Main masterpieces of Crimean culture are verses and poems, created by crimean khans and other noble persons, some of these poems depict fatal battles and some - the life of 'usual' crimean noblemen and their 'power struggle'. Also the crimean architecture is known widely around the world.
Main masterpieces of visual art were initially produced by migrants, because in 1500~1700-s islam, being a main religion, prohibited visual arts. But in 1800-s, when islamic influence declined, japanese, russian and european influence increased, especially after 1801 coup attempt and consequential prohibition of islam, visual arts became more common in Crimea.
In 1801, after banning islam, Great Khan Shahin-I-Geray reintroduced Teñri as a state religion and banned the use of islamic script.
That placed a strain on cultural development for 15 years.
Russian culture was spreading actively in this period. Many noblemen shifted to Russian, French and Chinese from the Tatar language, considering it too "outdated". French was removed from public use after the war with France in 1812, and Chinese - after bloody Taiping Uprising clampdown. Russian was used in some social circles until 1940-50s.
Latin or Cyrillic script was not introduced because of fear of western colonisation. Firstly, owing to big business deals between Japan, China and Crimea, chinese characters were used according to türkic word roots. For example, "araba" meaning "carriage" was replaced to "车"， and "qapı" meaning "gate" was replaced to "门". So the final version of the word "wide gate" (arabaqapı) became "车门". River (Su) became 水, black became 黑, so the name of Qarasu city became 黑水.
But there were no definitions for the number of nouns, which is present in crimean tatar language and absent in Chinese and Japanese.
So in time of Meiji restauration and Crimean political reforms in 1890-s, a new script emerged, as a compromise between old islamic script and japanese hiragana. It is used through today, mainly for international names writing.
From all Crimean visual artisans, Ivan Aivazian (Armenian national) is the most famous. His seascapes are exhibited all around the world and belong to the most recognisable art works of humanity.
The Kimmerian arts school (Kimmeria is an ancient greek name for Crimea), which begins with Aivazian, next gives M. Voloşın, being at the same time a poet and an artisan. It is the second world-famous crimean artisan.
* * *
So strange that the meaning of being
To me was revealed with such ease,
And "I" that in seed has been hidden,
And to growth and bloom secret keys.
In plants, in the rocks - everywhere,
In mountains, clouds above,
In beasts, in the blue star out there
I hear the singing of love.
The Riot (originally written in Russian)
You are prisoners of self-made labyrinths!
You corpses in the coffins clamped with nails!
You fanatics, who throw bombs
Into the Parlaments, stock exchanges, and palaces,
And you imagine that you can destroy with dynamite
All that which sprouts from within
From your own self with irrepressible force!
I call you to rebel against
The laws of your habitual nature and your mind:
To jump out of humanity
To final madness
The Transformation of your own self.
In Crimea currently (2019) lives 59.904.159 habitants in about 30 mln of households.
In 1899, 33.064.989 people were counted in Crimea in about 7 mln of households.
In 1929, 45.110.552 people were counted in Crimea in about 20 mln of households.
In 1959, 52.204.238 people were counted in Crimea in about 25 mln of households.
In 1989, 65.691.133 people were counted in Crimea in about 31 mln of households.
Regarding that, one can see that Crimea is currently in a last phase of demographic shift - long lifespan, free medicine in combination with conservative values and employment of either gender (making child raising more difficult) contributes to population aging and, ultimately, to demographical crisis. It is highly unlikely that Crimea will still make it to 50 mln in 2050. But the government develops new policies to encourage child raising and adoption and to prevent accidents and suicides.
Although, there exists yet another point of view - when the "60-s baby boom" cohorte will die, the "Y generation" will be the main workforce, and so the strain placed on social welfare system will be alleviated, and Crimea can even expect a demographical "big bang".
There are some migrant populations in Crimea, they are called Yabançı (外者). Migrants usually speak russian or english, rarely can speak tatar. They define themselves as foreign nationals in Crimea, rather than Crimean residents. Some crimean-born citizens also are Yabançı if they define themselves as foreign nationals, not Crimean citizens. It is mostly true in regard of romanian and chechen nationals in Crimea, which usually retain their identity even in next, crimean generation and do not adapt to crimean customs and culture.
They are heavily discriminated by people, but government denies any discrimination of foreigners. The root of discrimination of foreigners is in time of "monk khan" Sufi-Geray, when foreign nationals constructed railways and opened industry corporations using loan money and placed a considerable burden on Crimean economy.
Chechens, according to public anti-foreigner humour, are "too conservative", "worse than an uncalled guest", "capable to treason" and, in the same time, "extremely loyal to family values", "ready for revenge", "bad workers", "good soldiers".
Romanians, called "Moldovans", are expected to be "work-thirsty", "bad soldiers", "undependable", "very poor", "have big family abroad", "very low in demands", "cook very big food portions".
There are others stereotypes of foreigners in Crimea, for example, American\Anglosaxon people are depicted as ignorant, selfish and incapable of true love, often treasonous. Russians and East Asians are often seen as drunkards, and Indians and Muslims - as poor and uneducated people. There are no stereotypes for black people in Crimea, except the generic name "negro" for them, being not a slur word but mainly a generalisation.
There are 4 major religions in Crimea.
The first religion historically created in Crimea is a Teñri path. Dingir is translated as "Sky" in protosumerian, from this language it was loaned to prototurkic and spread accross the Eurasian steppe.
Saqa people in 6 century BC probably already were Teñrians, since they actively used sky and solar motives in their jewelry and pottery. This is probably due to protoiranic, sumerian influence. The Tripolye archeological culture is a main historical monument to ancient Teñri worshippers.
Teñri is based on worshipping the Eternal Sky-Father (Teñri), and (sometimes) the Great Mother-Soil (Umay). The artifacts of this religion are dolmens (big stone coffins with a round hole, meaning Mother-Soil) and mengirs (big round stone poles, meaning Father-Teñri).
With the flow of time, Dolmens were discontinued, and Mengirs were reshaped into Balbals - stone pole-like figures of ancient warriors and khans. It is not 100% anthropomorphic, because the main purpose is not to show an image of this only warrior or khan, but to point a symbol and (or) to mark a border (often not only Horde's border but also the border between perceived human and deity worlds).
There are no hell in Teñri. Instead, "the other face of earth" is often described as a grey and black place (like a negative of a film), named Qarataş, where souls wander around sand hills and dead trees, waiting for something like reincarnation. The time of wandering may wary, and depends on whether the soul had "lost its true path" in the human world before. (But no more than 40 days).
Some teñriists advocate existence of "souls that had not left", called "Keremet" (Unusual). Keremet is not only a ghost in usual meaning of this word - poltergheists, unusual nature cataclysms and "voices" are believed to be "keremets' inorderly deeds". Keremet is not filthy or bad at all. It is just an unhappy soul which seeks attention, that's why it is so active sometimes. Also Keremet is a name for a deceased ancestor, and each house has some "red corner" where there is a home-made altar for worshipping Teñri, Umay and ancestors' Keremets. If the descendant will not worship ancestors shortly after death (in the flow of 9 days), they will return as loud Keremets and will disturb him, until they are worshipped correctly. After 40 days, the soul is believed to end "black stone land" (Qarataş) journey and to reincarnate in our world, completely losing all previous experience.
Also some teñriists do believe in "İççi" (small spirits inside of every thing, not bad and not to be confused with Keremet). While Keremet has no viable form (that's why it is disturbing others), iççi is pretty happy inside of the roadway, bridge, animal, or work instrument. If the animal grows big and old, iççi may try to convert it to human form (usually fails). If the material thing is used masterly (swords, axes, hammers and so on) or very often (bridge, roadway) it becames "alive" and has its own character. Some accident-prone roadway junctions are worshipped by teñriists, they make small money and food sacrifices near to these places, also marking the place by paper or fabric strips. When they are marking the place, they make a wish, and iççi will try to make it come true. Work instruments are worshipped by keeping in clean dry place, and by passing from one qualified master to another, because the old and valuable working instrument is believed to "misbehave" in too young hands.
In 1801, all Teñri shamans were subordinated to the Great Khan, and the religion was systematised and revived as official, enjoying very big rise of clients.
In 1840, the Golden Gate rock in Qara-Dağ volcanic complex (Feodosia Prefecture) was designated as an official "sacred trip place". Each crimean, reaching 20 years, usually completes a ritual, which involves naked swimming through the Golden Gate (accessible only by boat, because a volcano territory is a protected national park), and launching a firework after departing back in sea after completion of this ritual. Because of the tension, placed on a sacred place, the visiting number each day is limited.
On the gallery of sacred places below it is placed by number 1.
The second by number religion is Eastern Orthodoxy. Believed by slavic tribes, the faith of orthodoxy is created in 13 century, after roman-bysantium clashes. In fact, when slavics accepted christianity, they have not chose eastern orthodoxy, because it was non-existent at the time. Only with flow of the time, Bysantium and Crimean (Kievan) slavic tribes shifted to a modern form of their Christianity.
This religion is shared between some of 20% of Crimean people, almost all of Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Southern Cyprus, Serbia, Montenegro, some Bosnia, Macedonia and about of 40% of Russia, and about of 10% of Qazaqstan.
The sacred place of Orthodoxy is located in Sevastopol, it's a St. Vladimir church, where (place, not church) St. Vladimir was baptised by Greeks (but there are no "official" trip place in Orthodoxy). On the gallery of sacred places below it is placed by the number 2.
The third by number religion is Sunni Islam. After 1890 constitution, alleviating Islam banning, many Adyghe and Chechen people began to worship Allah openly. Many old mosques were reopened, including the oldest - Sultan Beybars (12 century, number 3 on the gallery). Currently about 2% of crimean people are muslims.
The fourth religion, making around 1%, is Mahayana Buddhism, in two flavors - Gelug-pa (Yellow Caps) Tibetan Buddhism and Rinzai Zen buddhism. It was around from 16 century, brought by qalmyq nomads in Tibetan flavor and from XIX century brought by japanese businessmen in Zen flavor. The biggest monastery of Buddhism is in Elista, it is "Golden house of Shakyamuni Buddha" (number 4 in the gallery).
Sacred places of crimean faiths
The medicine in Crimea is modelled after Germany. Regarding very high level of medical help in the german army in WW I (in turn caused by lower population than Entente) Crimean Great Khan decided to model some aspects of medical help in Crimea after Kaiser Germany.
So, the medicine in Crimea is divided into 3 major groups.
First being the Feldşer medicine, modelled after german "Fieldscher". A feldşer has a half of secondary education, he can conduct routine operations and examinations. Salary of feldşer is between the salary of a doctor and of a medical sister.
Feldşer medicine is free to all citizens, residents and tourists.
Second being the Doctor medicine. The Doctor is the equivalent of M. D. in western countries. He has full secondary education including additional 5 years of internature. He conducts unusual examinations and complex operations similar to that provided by Israeli, Swiss and German medicine.
Doctor medicine is free to citizens which had been in army, or which are disabled and cannot serve in army.
Third being the Private medicine. Private medicine contains stomatology, plastic surgery, hair and skin therapy (if not after an accident or serious illness). It is not free for all citizens, residents and guests.
Each feldşer unit is located in a municipality, and each municipality has an area smaller than 200 sq. km. (77 sq. miles). That means, the medical help is accessible to any citizen within 8 minutes, which is a standart to save life in serious circumstances.
The police in Crimea can resemble japanese police forces, but was created independently.
Each municipality has a police station and a number of police boxes, each covering about 4 sq. km. (1.5 sq. mile). Police box is slightly taller and higher than japanese or british ones. It contains 2 policemens, called "militsia" after latin "militia" (armed population). Militsia forces can be used to control traffic, to investigate small thefts, fightings or threats, to return lost items after holder identification, to direct other social services (fire extinguishing forces, feldşer forces) and to help lost tourists.
The box of militsia is called Staqan after russian "стакан" meaning "a drinking glass", because of form.
Usually one militsiamen polices a neighborhood, sitting high in the Staqan. The other militsiamen stays away from staqan to direct people and to run on a call. Usually militsiamens are armed with small guns like TT or PM, while the general population does not have guns at all (except those in active army service).
The Internet in Crimea is expansively seen as a type of social service. The Internet is free (Wi-Fi type) in "special order cities" and "outstanding cities", while its price in usual cities and villages is not high. The right of author in Crimea amounts only to indicating the author of the art piece, not to restricting informational exchange. But all art authors receive small donations from state, defined by the demand on their art pieces and by the general socio-political need in those art pieces. Many "pirate" websites are hosted in Crimea, but due to Internet sovereignity law western countries have little influence to cut them down or to prohibit informational exchange.
Due to omnipresent Wi-Fi, crimean phones do not have a 5G module or LTE, they are only 3G.
Culinary of Crimea
Crimean culinary begins as such in 15 century, after independence from Golden Horde.
Great ottoman and italian influence leaded to creation of a sophisticated coffee culture.
Coffeeshops, named "kafehana" (咖啡館), are presented in each crimean city in quantity of 100 and more.
There are small coffeeshops around one car with built-in coffeemachine, or big halls with distinct men and women places.
When it is hot in crimean steppes, people are concentrating aroud "kafehana" to discuss matters, to have relax, to use "kalian" (water-filter tobacco smoking system, the only smoking type allowed in Crimea).
The hot period usually lasts for July-August, from 12:00 to 16:00 each day.
But the main eating place is at home.
Crimean cuisine includes:
1. Şorpa (translates as "soup"). Usually with meat and a lot of pepper.
2. Tala. A frozen fresh fish is sliced into thin slices, the unusual sauce is prepared to accompany it.
In last times, Tala use abroad is increased. But nations abroad do not comply with sea-to-customer delivery time, Crimea considers to set up a Tala international comittee.
3. Pılov. A mutton with rice, cooked in a high-walls pan.
4. Beşbarmaq. A horse with square pasta leafs. It is eaten by hand, much like tala. Can be accompaigned by potato.
5. Lagman. A crimean ramen. Can be both a soup or a main course, it depends on bouillon quantity.
6. Haçapuri. A georgian origin dish. It is a pie with cheese and egg, size and openness\closeness may vary.
7. Çibörek. A native crimean pie, fryed into oil. Caution - hot bouillon and oil inside.
8. Çurçhela. Yet another dish from Caucasus. Fruits and nuts inside of dehydrated jam.
9. Qurt. Dehydrated cottage cheese. Very salty. Formerly used as a "just in case" military meal in a glorious Golden Horde Army.
10. Borsç. A soup of slavic tribes, but originated in what is now Crimea. Uses a lot of beet.
İndustry of Crimea
The Barabaşqa market is the biggest market in Europe. It is called after
Nikolay Pavlovich Barabashov, astronome. But it was commonly "renamed"
(not officially) after a house iççi, which often causes disturbance and noise.
Currently it is home to textile and cheap electronics stores. Government tries
to repurpose it into a high-tech cluster (but fails).
The industrial revolution in second half of the XIX century happened in Crimea all at once. Only in 50 years Crimea underwent a drastical transformation process.
Until 1850-s, there were no needs to develop industry - more than 85% of area of Crimea is an arable land with good natural irrigation. So, Crimea suffered from a "resource curse" and, as a result, from a blatant corruption.
But up to 1890, Crimean khan Sufi-Girey, called a "monk Khan", allowed international capital to modernise crimean economy. Long and sophisticated rail network spanned entire Crimea. New factories were opened. But almost all of them were constructed on loan money, as in Ottoman Empire. Crimea very quickly became "a second ill man in Europe".
Shahin-Girey III expelled foreigners and nationalised all industry. Crimea was isolated from Europe and had trade only with Ottomans, China and Japan.
In 1920-30-s, Crimea was building one of the best armies in the world, and in 1941, entered war on Allies side.
Crimea defeated Germany with Soviet help, and in 1945 signed a peace treaty, ending the age of totalitarism and puppet states in Europe.
Old crimean products
New crimean products
In 1960-s, first electronics' companies appeared in Crimea.
In 1966, FOTON TV LTD started international colored TV trade.
In 1973, LCD version of Foton TV introduced.
In 2014, first Smart TV was produced.
In 2018, neurocomputing interface was tested at Kharkov Polytechnic University, although not ready for industrial use.
İnner politics of Crimea
Crimea is officially a parliamentary khanate.
With the flow of time, the position of crimean Khan, firstly established in 1441, drifted towards an absolute monarchy. There were elections, but only between candidates belonging to royal family.
In 1890, Shahin-Girey III was "elected" as a great khan. But he felt the instability of the political system of Crimean khanate. Socialist ideas were spreading at the time.
So the Great Khan made a turn towards general public, regarding Meiji restauration. He purged most of "Divan" members (hereditary noble men that made up consultative political council) and gave constitution to people, known as "Ulu Yasa" or "Yeñi Yasa" (Great Law or New Law), not to be confused with the first constitution in the world (Genghis-Khan's Yasa).
The new constitution made the Khan accountable in his deeds to people through a Qurultay, which became not an electoral commission, as before, but a constant political force, divided into 2 chambers - refurbished Divan (now more seen as an executive institution) and a new Majilis (representatives from all uluses, in total about 300 people). Representatives of uluses were military chiefs, still hereditary, each in commanding about 10 000 (one "tümen" ("万")) conscriptable men. That system was introduced mainly due to inflation of noble ranks.
In 1940-s, new Great Khan, regarding success of Soviet and American system over totalitary states, made military chiefs electable by conscripted soldiers, but ignored calls for total suffrage. More parties were legalised, but Divan members were prohibited to be any party members.
In that state Crimean political system exists until today. Only 5.399.557 crimeans were eligible to vote on last parliamental elections. They elected new 600 chiefs in 2016, which will serve to 2020 year.
Currently in Crimea there are 4 major parties, each representing some corner of the political compass.
The Milliy Fırqa (People's Party) is the oldest party in Crimea, it was founded by the Prime-Minister Özenbaş in 1891, following first statewide elections. The party is a typical "ruling class" party, such as Liberal-Democratic party in Japan, Nur Otan in Qazaqstan, AKP in Turkey or United Russia in Russia. In 2012 it underwent a massive renovation, many technocrats from young parties and from the general population were recruited. The ruling party was the first dropping its "chinese characters" name and writing all names and documents in a "new script".
In 1948, Milliy Fırqa lost to a Communist Party of Crimea, founded in 1920 following red revolution in Russia. Communist Party of Crimea is more liberal than russian or chinese ones, but still more conservative than "new left" in France or Ireland. Communist Party ruled up (1956-1968 in coalition) to 1988 year, and was trying to shift Crimean international policy from Japan to Russia.
In 1988, CESARET (Bravery) party came to power. It is a very conservative force, some arguing it is "pro-big-cats" party. It was founded in 1956 year, as a new opposition to communists, and as representation of big business corporations. In 1956 to 1968 it made a coalition with communists, searching ways to peacefully spread business interests. In 2008 year it had lost to Milliy Fırqa.
In 2012 year, a new party "Two worlds" won a judicial process of 5 courts in total to register itself, although its agenda is somewhat "racist" and "inhumane", as stated in the first court verdict.
Its agenda is appealing to interests of arms manufacturers and small businesses, also it has an anti-immigration, but pro-LGBT and pro-weed flavor. Currently it has no seats in parliament and, consequentially, has no government funding.
The day of election is exempted from a calendar, and Crimea has an universal calendar spanning 365 days breaking it into 5 national holidays, inserted after some usual days (end of the year (after 30 december), WWII victory day (after 8 may), Equality day (after 7 march), Greater October Revolution (after 6 november), Empress-dowager birthday (before end of the year) and 12 months with western names, but each spanning 30 days, in turn breaked into 5 weeks of 6 days, from which only 4 are work days, and 2 are weekend. Work hours are 16 hours per week, meaning 4 hours per day. This makes Crimea a country with lowest work hour and the biggest wage-to-hour ratio in the world.
Crimea divides itself in 84 prefectures with name "ulus" (県) (plural: "uluslar", 県们). They are administered by a pair of lottery-appointable expert-administrator ("biliş" "知事") from the national expert pool (the ones who passed the Governmental Provincial Exam System) and the electable governor ("ulusbaşı", "県頭").
Sometimes, the character "國" is used, mainly in old pre-1890s documentation. Essentially, the word "ulus" was used for abroad countries earlier, as well as for the regions of Crimea, denoting perceived "inferior" position of surrounding countries by Crimean people. Now the word Ölke ("国") is used for foreign countries as well as for their large self-governing entities such as Krai in Russia or Land in Germany.
Prefectures are grouped in 6 regions, named "yertal" (地方), which pre-1945 were called "yol" or "daruğa" (道).
Each region was in some point in history a road from sea or big city towards another country, that's why the character for region and road is essentially the same, and russians still use term "daruğa" to denote ways.
The prefectures in turn are divided into several cities ("qala", "市"), towns ("köy", "町"), and villages ("avul", "村"). Municipalities can be grouped in several statistical regions ("sancaq", "郡"), which do not serve any governmental functions since 1945 and are used mainly as fire station districts. Outstanding cities ("Ayrılğanqala" 自被得市) and Special Order Cities are spanning the entire sancaq.
Different areas of prefectures' central cities and of major "outstanding cities" are denoted as wards ("yurt", "区"). This name is also used in some historical examples outside of Crimea, namely, one of İstanbul wards is called Esen-yurt, one of Ankara wards is Ak-yurt. Wards and cities are subdivided into several "towns", such as Açıqlarköy in Sudağ (Crimea), but these divisions are optional and historical, several new cities do not have "inner towns" at all. Unlike Japan or Korea, wards of central cities as well as central cities themselves can have inner municipalities for the rural part, because sometimes the area administered by ward is too large to be fit for medical and police service, but these inner municipalities are, in fact, administered by the ward envoys, unlike other municipalities, whose governors or mayors are electable.
This is especially important for 4 southern prefectures namely Lesser Crimea, Theodosia, Novorossiysk and Sochi, where large portions of land stretching along the seashore were attributed to administrative centers (Theodosia, Novorossiysk, Sochi) or big cities (Yalta, Anapa, Gelinçik, Adler, Tuapse). These portions of land are accessible only from these centers or cities, that's why yurts here are located in line, and not in groups like in mainland big cities. Here "ghost municipalities" in fact do enjoy substantial autonomy and are necessary to provide basic services to citizenry.
The prefectures (uluslar) are as follows:
Name (Russian, International)
Area, sq. km.
Name (Crimean Tatar)
2 668 531
1 530 850
2 048 194
1 445 543
2 121 824
1 710 021
1 617 698
1 417 223
2 513 740
2 226 625
1 706 888
1 419 368
1 633 291
1 123 951
1 589 734
1 367 466
1 169 336
1 555 139
1 273 644
1 314 010
2 385 832
2 082 376
1 485 560
Kiçik Qırım (小 墙私)*
1 037 054
1 123 168
1 142 371
1 052 257
1 145 662
59 712 974
1 755 175
*The capital of the Lesser Crimea prefecture is the Bağçasaray city.
Unofficially Crimea is divided into 6 regions.
Crimea has adopted its own classification of cities.
In 1897, in times of first all-national census, coincided with russian census, Great Khan made order, which promoted development of extra-big cities. Kiev and Kharkov were close to 1 million people, so this order made them grow even faster to accumulate more working people and to lower social expenses (citizens do not require such transport costs as rural dwellers).
After that, every other city reaching 1 000 000 was promoted to a "special order city" (Arnalğan qala, 诏已被得市). It received some special rights, such as a right to construct a subway. After 90-s financial turmoil, there were made exceptions in this order. Regarding constant population shrinking, Krasnodar (Yeni Qarasu)(at the time almost 990 000), Krivoy Rog (Saqsagan) and Zaporozhye (Kiçik-As) were all promoted to "special order cities", but last 2 cities were stripped of this status in 2019. Krivoy Rog in this timespan had already constructed a mixed underground/city tram subway.
Regarding subway rights, there are currently 5 out of 10 cities with subways, and 1 city with a fully above-ground rapid rail transport. City of Odessa is too small in area to begin constuct a self-sustainable subway, Voronezh is extended down by rail line, so it is dependent on railway more than on its own services, Krasnodar is partly rural and does not need such a complicated system. Donetsk was created as a "Special Order city" only in 1991 after a merger with Makeyevka, so there is only a subway company without any stations constructed yet.
In Kiyev, Stalinodar, Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk there are usual subways, in Krivoy Rog (former SOC) and Volgograd there are mixed tram\subway systems, in Rostov there is a "city train" with a dozen of stops across all the city.
All cities with dense population more than 100 000 were made "outstanding cities" (Ayrılğan Qala 自被得市). Outstanding city retains partial autonomy in budgetal, educational, medical affairs. It can be divided into districts, and each district will be a separate municipality in the prefecture. But on top of these districts will be a "outstanding city mayor" which retains consultative and coordinational functions, being in itself a direct subordinate of prefecture mayor.
Many "outstanding cities" were formed as a result of mergers, for example, Stahanov was made from 7 distinct municipalities, some being standart cities, some being small towns. It was named Stahanov after the heroical mine worker and was a first example of the city, name of which was uniform in Crimean and Russian languages, and does not contain chinese characters in writing.
Other cities need to have more than 10.000 inhabitants in city core to be recognized as cities, otherwise they are noted as towns.
Port cities sometimes do not have prefectures, but are big enough to enjoy substantial autonomy and taxation exemption.
Law governing port cities was passed in 2019. Ports can have distinct foreign economical relations.
Also the proverb exist about Odessa and Rostov, 2 major port cities.
Odessa is called "Mother Odessa", and Rostov is called "Father Rostov". That reflects their position about capital and their size, to be said, Odessa is located to left from Kharkov, and Rostov - to right.
The capital of Crimea is factically a 3rd in terms of population, but has a most prominent geopolitical location.
Below is the table with Special Order cities of Crimea.
Urban Area, sq. km.
The beginning of a modern crimean army is in 1912, when Çelebicıhan's cabinet passed "Army priority" law.
The risk of global war was perceived by both the Great Khan and the Cabinet, so in 1913 the first modern batallion of 20 artillery units and 280 people (of which 60 was cavalry) was formed, replacing 5 cavalry hundreds.
In 1914 year, Crimea entered the WWI on the side of Entente. It participated in landing on the ottoman land, but instead of annexing territory on its behalf, Crimea enacted a 1524 year act about "ruling dynasty replacement", pretending to install a stooge in a former ally. While discontent inside the Entente was growing, turkish population perceived crimean forces as "not hostile", and that, combined with crimean funding of Ataturk, eventually led to liberation of Turkey and to scrapping of Sevres stalemate, ultimately leading to Lausanne Peace Treaty, ending Middle East WWI Campaign.
In 1917-8, Russia quitted war, partially because of red revolution, and partially because of tensions inside the Entente.
Crimea concluded a bilateral pact with Japan to counter possible "Red Russia"'s southwards offensive.
In 1920-s, there were clashes between Turks, Armenians and Kurds in Turkey, and support for Ataturk was scrapped by Crimea. Last crimean troops were evacuated from Turkey.
In 1920-s, Crimea begins to construct modern fleet, but the Black Sea treaty limits the quantity of ships.
The army remained very conservative, although it became highly motorised.
In WWII tensions between fleet and army were very high. Army favoured a high-scale invasion in Nazi Germany to protect crimean colonies such as Romania or Poland. But navy favoured a landing in Turkey and Mideast to cut resource traffic to Nazis. Army chiefs won, and fleet yet again had only supportive role, because of limited capability to transfer forces into north european rivers basins.
In 1939, Germany invaded Poland. In 22 of June 1941 it entered crimean soil. In 30 october 1941 Germany reached strategic Sevastopol (Aq-Yar) fortress. The siege of fortress lasted for a one year.
In the beginning of 1943, 80% of crimean soil was occupied by nazis. In Crimean Peninsula, the cradle of the Crimean Khanate, resistance movement was very high, and in 1942 crimean forces even have succesfully landed in Crimea Peninsula and cleared Feodosia Prefecture from nazis, although a month after were repelled.
From July 1942 to February 1943, Germany was trying to capture "emergency capital" of Crimea - Sarısu, and all crimean forces were summoned to this decisive battle.
In august of 1943, Crimea helped Russia on the northern front. Kursk battle was won by joint forces of Crimea and Soviet Russia, and the most capable tank brigades of nazi forces were defeated.
In 1944, all crimean soil was cleared of nazis.
In 9 may 1945, crimean army freed the city of Prague, while russian army was fighting in Berlin. The war ended for Crimea.
Crimea was neutral in USA-Japan battle, and condemned the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, creating tensions in relations with the USA. Nevertheless, being mostly "state-capitalist" country, not socialist yet, Crimea received help by Marshall plan.
In 1950's, after full-scale modernisation of economy and army, a unified commandery was created. In 1980's, almost all fleet was replaced and modernised, although many supportive ships remained in place, for example, Sarıqala rescue ship, built in 1915 and imported in Crimea from Russia in next year. Currently Sarıqala is an oldest ship on duty in the world. In 2015 it was modernised for third time and equipped with an underwater selfcontrolling "SeaEye" droid. Other secondary ships are no older than 1954, while main battle ships are no older than 1983.
In 2014 year, after US internal crisis and beginning of the Syria operation, Crimean fleet ordered a construction of the serie of artillery and rocket boats. Currently about 13 new artillery and rocket boats entered duty.
In general, current state of crimean fleet is not so good, because in 1980-s it was envisioned as a strategic task force, containing many long-range battlecruisers, some of which were atomic, and after 1990-s financial crisis many strategic ships including all atomic ones, were conservated or sent to deep repair, and a doctrine of "mosquito fleet" was adopted. So currently in Crimea there are, in fact, 2 different fleet types, and each has its own traditions and ship squadrons.
Army of Crimea concludes of construction and infrastructure corpse (about 65% of all army size), which in fact isn't a military force, and highly mechanised cavalry, accompanied by all-range artillery, tactical missiles and multiple rocket launchers. Aviation and strategic missiles are subordinated to fleet.
The precise size of army is unknown, as the only open source of the army size is the electoral register, updated each 4 years.
Currently there are 5.399.557 soldiers in both army and fleet, according to 2016 electoral register. Real numbers can be slightly smaller due to demographic crisis and consequent drafting crisis. Almost 60% of them are non-combatants, used for construction and public works.
Crimean army is concluded from 6 military operative-tactical commandments and 2 fleet commandments (airborne, HQ in Rostov and seaborne, HQ in Odessa). The creation of cybercommandment is on the way, dubbed by opposition force as "chairborne forces" ("qultuq quatları"). The purpose of cybercommandment is to counter infrastructure attacks, to develop antivirus software, to ensure internet transactions sovereignity and to sustain ideological warfare. The HQ will be located in Voronezh city, near the border, because in modern times full-scale military invasion in Crimea is practically impossible.
The fleet of Crimea is seen, like a very agile and usable force for special operations and army support rather than a major force. Although current crimean fleet is basically 4th after USA, China and Russia with its impressive 202 ships (85% of which have arms) and a nuclear submarine (currently in drydocks for reconstruction until 2021), it is more easy for crimeans to make military career, because the army of Crimea is much more conservative in its doctrine. The fleet is divided on commands, each command of the ship is headed by a Captain (Qapıdan, 门出), the squadron of ships is headed by a Captain-Bey (门出富) and the fleet is headed by a Captain-Paşa (门出官), subordinate to the Great Khan (太王). Airforces are guided similarly. So in the fleet (navy or aviation) there are only 4 military ranks (a sailor (or a pilot), a Captain, a Captain-Bey, a Captain-Paşa). In army there are decimal ranks - a soldier, an Onbaş ("Ten" leader, 〸头), a Yuzbaş ("Hundred" leader, 百头), a Miñbaş ("Thousand" leader, 千头), a Tümenbaş ("Ten thousands" leader, formerly a noble rank, 万头), an Army Bey ("Hundred thousands" leader, 军富, often was an equivalent of a governor until 1890) and an Army Paşa ("Million leader", 军官, an OTC commander and formerly a close advisor of Great Khan (太王)). That means, there are 7 ranks to rise in army. For misbehaviour, a sailor, a pilot or a soldier can be descended to a Başıbuzuq (头冰得), translating as "hooligan", "elders abuser", "heads chopper", he can only have sword, not gun, and is subordinated to the soldier selected by a Captain or Onbaş, other ranks are descending one rank back.
The Guard of Crimea currently is on decline, there are 2 types of guardsmen - noble ones, to which yatağans are passed from their fathers\grandfathers (noncombatant) and recruited, trained ones (hired directly by the Great Khan, but not hereditary since 1940s). Since 1945, noble status is not an equivalent to owning land and livestock.
Army data (not precise)
Artillery amounts to 1200 units
Tanks - 1500 units
Multiple rocket artillery - 500 units
Tactical rockets - 200 units
Strategical nukes - 150 units
Aviation data (not precise)
Fighters amount to 100 units
Helicopters amount to 40 units
Strategical bombers amount to 25 units
Biggest crimean ships
Type of ship
Atomic submarines charger
Big aircraft carrier
Big atomic battlecruiser
Big landing ship
Civic TEU transporter
Extra-silent electric submarine
Hard-boned inflatable boat
Long-distance soldier transport
Missiles stockhouse (no motor)
Multipurpose rescue ship
Oil accidents cleanser
Physical fields chk. Ship
Protected TEU transport
Rescue tow ship
Scuba diving boat
Search rescue ship
Special units lander
Underwater reload ship
Undisclosed purpose boat
War trophy tow boat