First Government: August 4, 1856
Current Constitution: January 1, 1977
Legislature: Chamber of Deputies
Meeting Place: Deputies' Station, Sanfación
Main Body: National Council of Administration
Leader: Chief of the National Council
Supreme Court: N/A
Constitutional Court: Constitutional Court
The Government of Nueva Libera is the governing body responsible for the administration of Nueva Libera. The current style of government was established on January 1, 1977 when the current Constitution came into force. The head of government is a National Council of Administration, made up of one representative of each of the 17 departments and 1 capital district. They are appointed by the various local governments each election year. From their ranks, the Council will appoint a Chief of the Council, who acts as a ceremonial head of state and supervisor of procedure within the body. Elections are meant to occur every 5th year, or whenever the Council votes for a "snap election." Generally in an election, the leader of the party with the majority of seats becomes the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies. If a party does not win the majority of seats, but still has more seats than any other party, then it is called a minority government. In a minority government, the ruling party must retain confidence from the house. If the Chamber of Deputies loses confidence in the ruling party, a vote of no confidence can be called which can lead to a snap general election.
>>USAGE OF THE TERM "GOVERNMENT"
In general parlance, the term "government" refers to both the set of institutions that govern the nation and to the current political leadership. The terms "federal" and "national" are also used to refer to the government and entities managed or controlled by the government. Examples most commonly include "federal land" or "National corporation."
>>EXECUTIVE BRANCH (WIP)
The government is defined as TBD
The current makeup of the Chamber of Deputies.
The legislative branch is the branch of government responsible for voting on and passing laws. Elections for the Chamber of Deputies are held every 5 years. The 534 members of the House of Commons—called Deputies—each represent a local electoral district and are directly elected by voters. Each district contains roughly the same population, determined through the latest decennial census. Nueva Libera uses a system known as Instant-Runoff Voting, or IRV, for districts with multiple candidates. Each voter ranks their candidates in order of preference, and the one with fewest votes is eliminated. Those who voted for that candidate have their votes added to their next choice; this process continues until there are two candidates left, at which point the one with the most votes wins.
To run for a seat in the Chamber of Deputies, a candidate must be at least 18 years old. When elected a Member of Parliament keeps their seat until parliament is dissolved, after which they may seek re-election. There are no limits for the amount of time a Member of Parliament can stay in office. Nueva Libera also uses a strong principle of recall: at any time, a petition of sufficient voters can initiate a binary-choice referendum that determines whether a Deputy from their district should be removed from the Chamber before their term has ended. If removed, a snap election begins in that district as soon as possible to choose a Deputy to fill the seat until the next general election.
>>Political Parties and Election Results (WIP)
>>JUDICIAL BRANCH (WIP)
>>Law Enforcement (WIP)
Federal law enforcement falls under the jurisdiction of the Policía Federal (Federal Police, abbreviated to PF in Spanish). They enforce federal laws and help local jurisdictions with enforcing their laws by request. Typically, though, jurisdictions do not have police forces per se, and usually only operate a Servicio de Mariscal (Marshals Service abbreviated to SM in Spanish), which enforces magistrate's orders, hunts fugitives, and keeps the peace. In situations requiring investigative work, national security, riot control, major public safety issues, etc. the local captaincy can call upon the appropriate PF division to aid the local SM detachment. The various divisions of the Policía Federal are as follows:
Policía Ferroviaria (Railway Police)
Policía de Carreteras (Highway Patrol)
Policía Postal (Postal Police)
Prefectura Naval (Naval Prefecture)
Policía de Aviación (Avation Police)
Policía de Investigaciones (Investigation Police)