We, the People of Walteren, ensuring the Natural Rights of Man, Justice for all, Free Will of the People, and the understanding that we must trade a few rights for protection by a strong government, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Principality of Walteren.
Article I- Of the Provinces of Walteren
Section I- Rights
I. All Provinces have a guaranteed level of autonomy within their borders, including having a local government, that cannot be revoked by the Principality's Federal Government.
II. Provinces shall have the right of appeal for executive action, and may bring their case before the courts. Provinces may not be tried twice for the same offense nor charged for an offense that was not illegal under Principality's law at the time. Furthermore, accused provinces shall be considered innocent unless proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
III. Recently annexed provinces shall have limited autonomy. These restrictions may be lifted to that of a normal province after one week and approximately 55% of the province's population can pass a citizenship test for the Principality. These tests will have a different standard than Immigration Citizens' Test.
IV. Provinces in which a heavily divided populous exist may break apart into smaller provinces, given they will be economically and politically stable.
Section II- Responsibilities
I. Provinces, and their peoples, shall be loyal to the Principality; treason is the highest offense in the land.
II. Provinces shall not seek to overthrow or unlawfully manipulate the government of the Principality, either independently or conspiring with foreign or domestic actors. Violation of this clause shall be considered treason.
III. Violent secession movements shall be considered treason under this clause, whilst the right of petition of secession shall be maintained.
IV. No citizen, nor Province, shall be considered above the law or immune from punishment.
Article II- The Legislative Branch
Section I- The Congress
I. All legislative powers shall be invested into The Congress of Walteren, which shall be the highest institution in the land.
II. Each province in Walteren shall send in two(2) Senators, regardless of population or size, to represent their province in The Congress of Walteren.
III. As per the restrictions on recently annexed provinces, they shall only be granted one(1) senator to represent them until they gain their guaranteed autonomy.
Section II- The Powers of The Congress
I. Senators in Congress shall vote aye, nay, or present on legislation, with those not voting or voting present not counted. Legislation must be brought forth by at least one sixteenth(1/16th) of the provinces represented, or by popular petition, in order to be brought to the debate floor.
II. Legislation must be passed by a majority of those present, but no amendment to this document may be passed without two thirds(2/3) of those present concurring.
III. The Congress may create and alter its own rules and procedures with the consent of two thirds(2/3) of those present. Prior to passing any other act, the Congress must establish rules and procedure immediately upon its first deliberation.
IV. Laws from Congress are the Laws of the Principality, the highest law in the land. Local laws may no be passed that conflict with this document or laws passed by congress.
Article III- The Executive Branch
Section I- The Royal Family
I. The executive authority of the Principality shall be invested into the royal family of House Rosenweld, who shall serve as head of state.
II. The Prince holds the majority power in the family, but this power can be passed to a Princess if no male heir is suitable or available.
III. The Prince shall appoint members of the Cabinet, which shall act as their personal aides, and members of the High Court.
IV. The consent of the Prince is needed for the passage of any constitutional amendment. If the Prince does not take action on any amendment presented to him within seventy two(72) hours, it shall be considered to have his consent. The consent of the Prince is not needed for regular laws, but he shall have the power to veto them, provided that the veto is issued within seventy two(72) hours of the bill’s passage.
V. The Prince may, during times of crisis, pandemic, or national emergency, pass executive orders and suspend the Congress, given the need to do is apparent in the face of emergency. These orders may, temporarily, alter the laws in this document and those passed by the Congress.
VI. The Prince shall be allotted up to three executive orders per year during times of no national emergency. These executive orders must be used within the confines of the powers of the President and shall not take effect if they conflict with either this document or any law passed by the Congress. The Congress may repeal these executive orders with a two thirds(2/3) vote.
VII. The Prince may pardon citizens or provinces that would otherwise be punished under Principality law.
Section II- The President
I. The popular authority of the Principality will be invested into the President.
II. The President shall be elected by citizens by absolute majority. If no candidate has a majority, the two(2) with the highest number of votes shall move on to a second election. In the event of a tie in the second election, the Congress shall select the winner. In the event of a tie in the Congress, the vote of the incumbent President shall count twice, in order to break the tie.
III. No person who has served two(2) consecutive terms shall be allowed to seek the office of President during times of peace, but they shall be allowed to seek the office of President once another election has been held. If a person has ascended to the office of President due to incapacitation, removal, or resignation, and serves one year or less of that term, it shall not count to the limit stated in the prior clause.
IV. Elections are suspended during times of war, leaving the power not to the President, but the Prince and royal family.
V. The President shall take office on the same day of a new session of government, and his term will last for the duration of that session. On that day, he shall take an oath of office that shall be “I _____ do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I shall abide by, preserve, and protect the Constitution of the Principality.” The addition of any religious swear before or after the oath of office is permitted and shall not affect the integrity of the oath, and the swearing or affirmation of such an oath shall constitute resignation from both the Congress and any and all partisan affiliations for the duration of that person’s term as President.
VI. The President must have been a citizen of the Republic for no less than ten(10) years, but does not have to have been born within the Principality.
VII. The President shall serve as the Speaker of the Congress, and shall have final interpretation of the rules of the Congress, but may not vote on legislation, but may break ties.
VIII. The President may be dismissed by the Prince or by a motion of no confidence by the Congress, provided such motion has three fifths(3/5) support. If removed from office, the President shall serve as a caretaker until his replacement has been voted in during a new election. In the event that the President is unwilling or unable to discharge his duties but was not forcibly removed from office, the Prince shall assume the powers of Acting President until a replacement has been voted in.
Article IV- The Judicial Branch
Section I- The High Court
I. The highest judicial body in the Principality of Walteren shall be the High Court of the Principality, and nine(9) justices shall be appointed.
II. The Court shall have the power to interpret this document and hear appeals of executive action against provinces, and overturn executive or legislative action on the basis of constitutionality. Any case involving constitutional doctrine may be claimed by the High Court, and the Court may take up appeals of jury trials, but shall not be required to. Any case regarding the Prince or President shall automatically go to the High Court.
III. The High Court shall have the power to choose among itself a Chief Justice, who shall preside over the Court.
IV. Justices shall exercise power within the confines of the Constitution and shall not seek to expand their influence beyond this document’s limitations, and the High Court must interpret the Common Law without having ideological or philosophical mental reservations. If found to have violated this clause, a member of the Court may be removed with a two thirds(2/3) vote in the Congress.
V. Justices may not serve as members of the Congress.
Section II- Juries
I. All cases regarding criminal charges against a citizen may, at the request of the accused, be decided by a jury of five citizens, chosen at random and presided over by a Justice. No Justice shall be eligible for jury duty.
II. No jury shall convict without a four fifths(4/5) vote.
Article V- Government Operation and Elections
Section I- Separation of Powers
I. The Prince holds the highest power in the land, but shall be kept in balance during times of peace and no emergencies.
II. All branches shall be separate and equal branches, with no branch able to check the others beyond what powers they have been given by this Constitution.
III. All branches may affect their own internal debate and rules of procedure without interference from the other branches.
Section II- Elections
I. Elections for President shall be conducted on the seventh(7th) day of January, with the Congress having the power to establish institutions governing these elections to ensure fairness and transparency.
II. The new session of government shall begin five(5) days after the Presidential election, with the new government officials taking office on the twelfth(12th) day of January.
III. The period between an election and the beginning of a new session shall be called a transition period. During such a period, the Executive Office shall be handed over to the President-elect.
Section III- Abstentions
I. All officials shall abstain from performing their duties provided that they have an external interest in the matter. Failure to abstain may constitute criminal charges, at the discretion of the High Court and the Congress.
II. No official shall be eligible to vote on his own impeachment or removal, and no official shall be eligible to vote on the impeachment or removal of an official to whom he is the designated successor.
III. No citizen shall be able to serve on an electoral committee if they are a candidate in that election.
IV. Members of the High Court may not conduct trials of fellow members, instead an extraordinary tribunal must be formed by the Congress.
Section IV- Requirements to Vote and Hold Office
I. Only citizens may be elected, vote, or be appointed to office.
II. The offices of President, Justice, Senator, or any member of the Cabinet shall be considered “major offices”. Any other office may be considered a “minor office”, although the Congress may declare certain offices to become “major” or ”minor”.
III. No citizen may hold more than one(1) major office, but may hold an unlimited number of minor offices with the exception of deputy for a member of the Cabinet.
Article VI- Amendments & Ratification
Section I- Ratification of the Constitution
I. This Constitution will be considered to come into effect once a majority of citizens have ratified it.
II. Immediately upon ratification, the Congress may assemble and may set the date for an election. The Interim President shall exercise executive power on a caretaker basis until such an election has been held and a President has been voted in.
Section II- Amendments
I. Possible amendments to this document may be brought fourth for deliberation by a coalition of Senators, Justices, the President, the Prince, or popular petition.
II. Deliberation involves passing the amendment through the Congress with a two-thirds(2/3) majority vote, and approval by the Prince.