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Scientific & Technical History

Technology, the system of τέχνη (tékhnē, "art, craft, handiwork"), is an organisation of human science and cognisance in adaptations, machines, methods and processes. The market efficiency and accessibility, and the progressive and liberal cognisance, of the of the continent promoted the importance of technical potential. Technical progress has been a technocratic feat and Atlantean effort, an apt act of appropriation by humanity. Technology is an ideology of technical solutions for practical problems. Science (Wissenschaft, science, scienza) is an expression of an ideal but not a reality. Defending the principle of the universality of science depends on the intention and obligation of maintaining its equal and just accessibility for all human beings. The epistemological core of empirical and logical science is its philosophy of intersubjective testability. The historiography of science is a history of inter-communal (e.g., multicultural and international) origins with socioeconomic foundations. The genial creation and evolution of technology (e.g., the harmonic system of apparatus and machine) advances industry and progresses humanity. The unification of observable universal forces, phenomena, and interactions of nature is the principal effort of physical science. In physics, Isaac Newton first united gravitation and motion. James Clerk Maxwell united electricity and magnetism. Albert Einstein later united both variety of space and time, and the equivalency of mass and energy. Derived and modelled from the observations of Michael Faraday's experiments, Maxwell's electromagnetic equations, however, are the limit of quantum electrodynamics, which describe photoelectric (light and matter) interaction. Maxwell is considered to be the founder of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering or electrotechnics (Elektrotechnik, électrotechnique, elettrotecnica) has historically been a highly respected engineering profession. Its innovation has been central to the technological progression and scientific advancement in society. A practitioner of engineering is called an engineer (Ingenieur, ingénieur, ingegnere).


The common (aural and visual) language of science and engineering is mathematics. The symbol of technology, a tangible act of manipulation, is the hand. The hand is the corporal human instrument for anthropocentric measure. It facilitates the existential creation and physical application of the cerebral and neural functions of mental perception and conception. It is capital and essential to the realisation of conceivable ideas as actual. The right-hand rule mnemonic describes the orientation of the axis of rotation of spiral helices, of the normal vector of a surface curve, of the direction angular momentum and rotational force produced by angular velocity and acceleration, of the coordinate axes of three-dimensional space, and of the direction of induced magnetic field lines and electric current flow. In the virtual image formed by reflection, lateral spatial inversion occurs for one coordinate, resulting in the reversal of the coordinate axis normal to the plane mirror. This is a transformation of chirality such that the object and the virtual image are asymmetric or not superimposable by rotation or translation transformations. Hands are chiral objects because they have chirality. The property of polarisation of an electromagnetic wave describes the chiral orientation of an electric and magnetic field vector, i.e. the periodic function of direction and amplitude. In a transverse wave, the orientation of the linear or circular (a special case of elliptical) oscillation is perpendicular to the direction of the propagation of the field. If parity symmetry of an interaction is conserved, a spatial inversion called a parity transformation results in invariant consequences. This transformation inverts the chirality (basis orientation of vector space) of a system. The rule geometrically expresses the product of two linearly independent vectors in three-dimensional space as a vector that is orthogonal (at a 90 degree or π/2 radian angle, or quarter revolution, rotation, gyration, cycle or turn, relative) to both. Compare this to the scalar product that is the projection of two vectors.

The definition of language includes mathematics, a form of lingual logic (i.e., pertaining to words, speech, discourse, response, dialect, intellect, discussion, narration, oration, and reason). Mathematics is used by science and engineering to describe, resolve, and realise the Cosmos. The tradition of mathematics began in Aleixandria as geometry. This geometry had a spiritual and mystical significance in Palmaism. For example, astronomy and astrology of the Sun, Earth and Moon are central myths to its cosmic theology. The Sun is represented as a disc (a circular figure whose ring or annular corona limit is a circle). The disc symbolises the concept of cosmic unity. The celestial and terrestrial divine light of the Sun is compared to that of an esoteric and mystic glass lamp. The circle is a special curve that divides a plane of space into interior and exterior regions. It consists of all points in a plane that are equidistant (equal distance) from the centre. This distance is defined by a line segment that joins the centre of a circle with any single point on the circle. The longitude of this segment, or radius, is half that of the diameter, which is a line segment that passes through the centre and whose terminal points are on the circle. An arc is a connected space of the circle whose terminal points can be connected by a chord. The region limited by the linear chord is a segment. A secant is a coplanar and linear extension of the chord such that it intersects the circle at two points. A circular sector is defined by two radii (plural of radius) with a common terminal point at the centre and terminal points at the terminal points of an arc. The region common to the intersection of two coinciding discs is a lens. A tangent is a coplanar line that intersects the circle at a single, common point so it only "touches" the curve.

Two circles are congruent (i.e., a spatial relation of equal dimension and form, independent of position and orientation) if they have an equal diameter (i.e., one ensemble of points can be transformed into the other by an isometry of translation, rotation or reflection). The circumference is the distance of one circuit on the curve the circle. The unique relation arrives from this perimeter; the ratio of the circumference to its diameter is equal to the irrational and transcendental number of π (pi). It is an international number that is symbolic of unity, solidarity, and peace. The area of a disc is equal to the area of a triangle with a base equal to the circumference of the circle and an altitude equal to the radius of the circle. One revolution of circle is divided into 2π radians or 360 degrees. When paired with trigonometry, the unit circle (with a radius of one) can be described by the parametric and periodic functions of an acute angle: sine and cosine. The rectangular triangle posses a lateral side, called the hypothenuse, that is opposite of the right angle. The square power (quadrate potency) of the hypothenuse is equal to the sum (union) of the squares of the sides (catheti). This triangle defines these functions such that the former is the ratio of the cathetus opposite of the angle and the hypothenuse, and the latter is the ratio of the cathetus adjacent of the angle and the hypothenuse. The ratio of these former and latter is the tangent function. For a circle centred at the origin of a coordinate system, the rotation at an anti-clockwise angle of a ray that intersects the circle defines the horizontal coordinate as cosine and the vertical coordinate as sine.

The circle is a special type of ellipse where the two foci are coincident at the centre. The ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola are types of conic sections. Conics are intersections of the surface of a cone with a plane. A cone is a line rotated around an axis at the centre of the base to form a three-dimensional figure. If the points of the planar base are include, the the cone is a solid object. The exclusion of the base forms a two-dimensional object in three-dimensional space. A circle is obtained when the plane of intersection is parallel to that of the base or perpendicular to the axis. A conic section is the locus of all points whose distance to the focus (a fixed point) is a constant eccentricity, or a multiple of the distance from the locus of points to the directrix (a fixed line). The vertex is equidistant to the directrix and focus. The eccentricity of a circle is zero, of an ellipse is greater than zero and less than one, of a parabola is one, and of a hyperbola is greater than one. These figures describe astronomical orbits. The circle is both the limiting case of the ellipse and of a curve of constant breadth (width). In the second case, the perpendicular distance between two parallel lines that intersect the limit of a convex figure at a single point is equal in all directions of those lines. For a circle, its extent is the diameter. These curves are called rollers or rotators because of their constant extent in motion with respect to the central axis of rotation. The infinite limit (in terms of sides edges, and vertices) of a regular (equilateral, equiangle, and convex) polygon approximates a circle, if area or perimeter is fixed.


In Atlantean culture, the word is mightier than the sword. The importance of writing in mathematics, literature, philosophy, history, art, and science possesses common instruments. Rhombus GmbH (after the equilateral parallelogram formable with the symmetry of the hands manufactures and produces utensils and implements known for their quality and utility as its Hermes mark (the Psychopomp and the divinity of communication, language, commerce, and script who is the half brother of Apollo and Athena, and the periplean son of the maternal Maia of revival who is the Pleiad daughter of Atlas). The graphic stylus inscribes the symbols of language on paper with pigments including ink (tint) and graphite, which is carbon in a hexagonal crystalline atomic structure (archaically called plumbago or "lead" whose plumb ores have a similar appearance in mines) and powdered with argillaceous clay. These mechanical pens (cylindrical or hexagonal tubes such that the transversal section is a circle or a hexagon) of used in general writing and technical drawing (engineering draughting) transfer pigment by a rolling ball applying viscous ink or by abrasion that adheres to the paper and whose marks (symbolic pictures of notes, letters, and numbers) can be erased with plastic polymer latex gum or polyvinyl chloride. These implements are typical methods for dactyl (digital) extension and impression by scribes and writers. The typographic press or printer that stamps (applies pressure to) inked glyphs of (alphabetical and numerical) characters, letters, signs, symbols, and punctuation to the paper medium. The technology accelerated renascent education and human cognisance.

The emblem of General Electric.
Automotive manufacturing in Alpenburg is led by FAAT Motor Company (Alpenburgische Automobilfabrik Turin AG, Fabrique Alpesbourgeois d'Automobiles de Turin S.A., Fabbrica Alpiborghese d'Automobili di Torino S.A.) based in Turin. FAAT, through its various marks (Marken, marques, marchi) with symbolic emblems and logotypes, has historically been involved in motorsport (Formula One and rallying). It fabricates its volumetric (alternative and rotary) internal combustion motors, which operate in four successive cycles of admission (aspiration), compression (ignition), combustion (explosion and expansion) and exhaustion (escape). In mechanics, system of gears (rotational wheel of teeth) transmits power (source of potency), in a controlled conversion of the rotational force and motion (velocity and direction) by traction. The velocity at the point of contact is equal for both gears, and therefore proportional to the product of the radius and angular velocity of each gear. The mechanical advantage (quantifying the amplification or reduction of rotational force) is the ratio of the radius of the output with that of the input, or the angular velocity of the input (introduction) with that of the output (conclusion). A (manual and pedal, or automatic) transmission in a motor (automotive) vehicle is applies the mechanical power of a motor to a gear system and the shaft (axles and wheels) for propulsion. Most automobiles manufactured by FAAT are classified in the sport, luxury, compact and executive segments, and designed as a sedan for transporting people and baggage from a railway station to their estate (residence). Suspension and disc brakes are the norm, with regenerative and dynamic braking used to convert the mechanical energy of the rotating shaft into electrical energy with an electric motor as an electric generator. The largest petroleum company in Atlantis, Palma Riviera's state-owned SNP (Società Nazionale di Petrolio, Sociedad Nacional de Petróleo, Societat Nacional de Petroli, Sociedade Nacional de Petróleo, Société Nationale de Pétrole), is a major sponsor of motorsport. It has led the transition and conversion to hydrogen as a combustible for motors and cells (piles).

An Linkairship over Orpheus Bay in Rio de Rosa, Palma Riviera (11630 HE).
Largely industrial (electrical, rail, health care, and energy) manufacturing exists, primarily by the Munich-based engineering company, the General Electric Company (Allgemeine Elektrische Gesellschaft AG, Société d'Électricité Générale S.A., Società di Elettricità Generale S.A.). General Electric is notable for producing locomotives: the LinkTGV, Atlasstar, and LinkPendolino, in addition to suburban, regional and metro trains, and trams. It also engages in the electronics industry. Under the Mile mark, it produces consumer electronics (computer and television displays) and domestic appliances (washer, dryer, dehumidifier and desiccator machines; motorised processors, mixers, beaters, and churns; air climate conditioners and refrigerators). The ovens, furnaces, hearths, stoves, and radiators it produces use electromagnetic induction and electrical resistance (of ceramic glass or incandescent lamps of vaporous halogen gas and metallic wolfram filament) to cook and bake with thermal radiation, convection, and conduction. Its aspirators use suction, or force caused by the dynamic reduction pressure of a partial vacuum created by electrically motorised pump and ventilator fan, to mechanically collect detritus as a solid and liquid fluid stream of particles in a purse or cyclone. It produces imaging systems (cameras; microscopes; medical and scientific optical instruments; medical imaging for diagnostics such as emission and transmission scanners, e.g. computed tomography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging; electrophysiology recorders such as electrocardiographs and electroencephalographs; and ophthalmic lenses) under the Alhazen mark, electronic and mechanical timepieces (clocks and watches) under the Chronos mark, audio equipment (for musical recording and high fidelity), computer hardware, energy systems, and telecommunication equipment under the Maxwell mark. Its General Electric Laboratories ("Labs") is world-famous for industrial research and scientific development in telecommunications, computer science (informatics), material science, mathematics, and physics. General Electric, as the Apollo mark, is also a phonorecord label in the music industry. It was the first phonorecord label to introduce Linkcompact disc (CD) sound recordings, a digital optical disc data storage format, that was a feat of electronics and information theory. Headquartered in Munich, the General Aerospace Company (Allgemeine Luft- und Raumfahrt Gesellschaft AG, Société d'Aérospatiale Générale S.A., Società di Aerospaziale Generale S.A.) makes the Aerobus airplanes (Flugzeug, avion, aeroplano), helicopters (Hubschrauber, hélicoptère, elicottero), the Concorde supersonic airliner (Verkehrsflugzeug, avion de ligne, aereo di linea) and electric aircraft, which fly and glide unlike terrestrial electric vehicles (powered by lithium-ion batteries, accumulators or piles) fabricated by FAAT and General Electric. General Aerospace designs according to fluid mechanics principles (aerodynamics versus hydrodynamics, and pneumatics versus hydraulics). General Electric designs and fabricates electric motors and electrical generators including the alternator and dynamo(-electric machine) for industrial objectives.

Nautical navigation in terrestrial and celestial space imposes technical and material conditions. Movement (drift) in a flow field (e.g., air and water) presumes fluid conducts as a continuum with the properties velocity (distance per unit time, a spatial or positional function of the temporal dimension that, with direction, describes the motion of an object in observational reference), density (mass per unit volume, where mass is the resistance of a material object to acceleration or mutation of states of motion in space resultant of an application of force), pressure (force per unit area, where area is the two-dimensional surface of three-dimensional space), and temperature (manifestation of and proportional to thermal energy, which is transferred as a thermodynamic, kinetic and caloric flow). Absolute zero is a temperature of −273.15° centigrade (C), with the freezing (congelation) and boiling (fervent vapour) points of water at 0° and 100°, respectively. Dynamic lift and drag (the sustentative portance and resistive friction that are components of aerodynamic or hydrodynamic force perpendicular and parallel to the direction of flow of the fluid or liquid) are fundamental to the motion of the vehicle. The other forces are propulsive thrust (reaction force from the acceleration of mass in opposition to its expulsion or ejection) and the material charge of weight (gravitational force acted on objects of mass, as a product of mass in kilograms or kg and nominal terrestrial gravitational acceleration in metres per second per second or m/s/s). Static lift is buoyancy, the impulsive flotation that opposes the weight of the immersed or submerged object. A jet of fluid (from an aperture or orifice) entrains molecules in the immediate ambient to cause an axisymmetrical tube of low pressure. If a solid convex surface is placed beneath it in parallel causes further entrainment and reduction of pressure on that side. The jet deviates in direction, inducing the effect where it adheres to the surface. The aerofoil (alar profile) deflects air downward, resulting in an equal and opposite reaction force (lift) upward. This can further be explained by the pressure difference created by the velocity difference of the incompressible fluid over and under the aerofoil that results from the conservation of mass with the condition of constant flux (volume flow per unit area). Flux is a scalar physical quantity that is the integral of a differential form of a vector field normal to a directed and oriented surface (with a frontier of a line, curve, contour, or path) as an original or terminal divergence. With higher velocity and lower pressure on the upper surface, a net force occurs. As a leading aeronautics and space (Luft- und Raumfahrt, aéronautique et spatial, aeronautica e spazio), but not armaments, company notable for ergonomic aviation electronics, General Aerospace also designs and manufactures airships (Luftschiff, dirigeable, dirigibile) for the Lufthansa fleet. Its aerodrome is famous for its helium airship hangars. It fabricates continuous internal combustion motors serially comprised of a compressor, combustion chamber and turbine (gas, compared to the other fluids of liquid water and steam or water vapour, which transfers mechanical energy to work). Work (potent labour) is the energy of the action of force (a product of its application in the direction of displacement) that accelerates a corporal (physical and material) mass. It is equal to the positive change of kinetic energy and negative change of potential energy. The rhythm (derivative per unit time) of the transfer or conversion of energy is power (potency that is the product of mechanical force and velocity and electrical current and potential). The company is also a contractor of the Atlantean Space Agency.


Technology can be described to have four causes: (1) substance (the material composition and determination); (2) form (the formal arrangement and disposition); (3) agent (the efficient movement and transformation); and (4) function (the final motivation and adaptation). The objective of norms is the reflection of scientific natural order in social and technical order. Science as natural philosophy can be divided from philosophy by its investigation of latent phenomena as physics (the mechanics or cause of matter, motion, force and energy), in contrast to metaphysics (the technics or magic of form, function, verity and reality). Normalisation—with impartial and technical attestation the core medulla or marrow—is a guardian in the maintenance and protection of (1) the universality and equity of commerce and relation, (2) the verity and reality of discourse and communication, (3) the uniformity and normality in reproduction and measurement. International technical normalisation, whether pan-Atlantean, planetary or worldwide (weltweit, mondial, mondiale), through independent verification and validation of specifications, indications, designations and prerequisites for a product, service, or system assures the coordination necessary for economic well-being in industrial society. This commensurable civilisation is a figurative paragon, a modular, normal, comparative and evaluative acute stone for whetting, honing, sharpening and touching. The harmony of normal (statistical, aspirational and functional expectation, or typical, habitual and usual regularity) forms euphony from cacophony. Consistent quality of the goods and services (products and processes) produced and processed by industrial and material organisations is necessary for the satisfaction of the desires of clients. Quality control and design of the mass production systems of equipment (instruments, implements, and components) necessitates structural responsibility, sustainability, and transparency. Statistical measures and analysis aid in calibration and the identification of corrective and preventive actions for normal regular conformity and continuous technical progress.

The Atlantean Normalisation Institute (Atlantiden Normungsinstitut, Institut atlantéen de normalisation, Istituto atlantideo de normalizzazione) or ANI is the electrical and mechanical engineering standards organisation that cooperates with the International Electrotechnical Commission (Internationale Elektrotechnische Kommission, Commission électrotechnique internationale, Commissione elettrotecnica internazionale) or IEC, within the International Telecommunications Union (Internationale Fernmeldeunion, Union internationale des télécommunications, Unione internazionale delle telecomunicazioni) or ITU, and within the International Organisation for Standardisation (Internationale Organisation für Normung, Organisation internationale de normalisation, Organizzazione internazionale per la normazione) or ISO (although not an acronym but an abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos or ίσος, meaning "equal"). All four are headquartered in Geneva, also home to the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Internationales Komitee für Gewicht und Maß, Comité international des poids et mesures, Comitato internazionale dei pesi e delle misure) or ICWM. The ICWM normalises the weights and measures utilised as quantitative (base and derived) units of calibres (of form) and gauges (of function), which are the temporal, material, spatial, thermal, electrical, and luminal "metres" of dimension. The decimal metric system has legally replaced that of all sectors of industry, including pharmaceutical apothecaries and construction measurements. The ANI specifies harmonised technical norms for structural design and engineering in the Atlascodes. These norms apply to domestic, commercial and industrial construction of buildings, edifices, erections and bastions to assure security, stability, salvation and fortification. They are symbolic of the mythical columns as a mundane and human invention that sustain the celestial spheres on the terrestrial sphere (a circle rotated around any of its diameters, such that a circle is analogous to a sphere and a disc to a ball). The ANI conducts the compulsory certification by conformity mark on products that have compliance with Atlascode regulation, which is enforceable in AU member states. The mark of the estimation sign (℮) marks conformity (satisfaction) of the nominal quantity of content to permitted tolerance (tolerable error). Like the ICWM, the ITU, ISO, and IEC form working groups of experts, as a joint committee of authorities, to decide on technical standards or norms (Normen, normes, norme).


The Atlantean Research Council (Atlantiden Forschungsrat, Conseil atlantéen de la recherche, Consiglio atlantideo della ricerca) or ARC funds research at Atlantean universities and institutions. For example, the ARC funds the Atlantean Centre for Biology (Atlantiden Zentrum für Biologie, Centre atlantéen pour Biologie, Centro atlantideo per Biologia) or CAB, a laboratory in Alpenburg which researches molecular biology, biological chemistry, biological physics, neurosciences, genetics, and informatics. Alpenburg uniquely hosts the heavy-ion physics research laboratory the Atlantean Centre for Nuclear Research (Atlantiden Zentrum für Kernforschung, Centre atlantéen pour la recherche nucléaire, Centro atlantideo per la ricerca nucleare) or CARN (the acronym from the name in French) in Geneva. As the home of the Large Subatomic Collider (a particle accelerator, which operates like EM imaging microscopes), CARN specialises in particle physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics, nuclear chemistry, and physical chemistry. By medium of its study of physics (Physik, physique, fisica), it has synthesised chemical elements that are confirmed as discovered by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (Internationale Union für reine und angewandte Chemie, Union internationale de chimie pure et appliquée, Unione internazionale di chimica pura e applicata) or IUPAC and that are included (and named) in the periodic table system. The IUPAC standardises organic and inorganic chemical nomenclature. CARN is famous as the birthplace of the World Wide Web (WWW). The WWW is applied and accessible over the Internet that was born in Nova-Lox as a pan-Atlantean state-funded project of an interconnected computer network and a communication protocol. The application protocol for connective, distributive and collaborative hypermedia (a "web" of hypertext and its hyperlink ligaments) information systems was initiated at CARN. The resource locator of the protocol is an address or identification scheme that precedes the host name appended by the domain name (e.g., with Alpenburg having the country code top-level domain of .ab) that is succeeded by a path, file name, query string, and fragment identifier. The most popular (re)search engine (a genie or daemon in the sense of algorithmic motor or machine) is Spindle. As a robotic spider spinning a web, the graphical work it fabricates is an index that indicates the hyperlink location of hypertext documents (pages, graphics, images, audio, video, and files). It provides services such as electronic mail (messengers, couriers, and post), library (bible of information and cognisance), maps (navigational and nautical charts or the geographical and cartographical representations of topology), and places (commercial markets and social spaces). The General Electric Labs is also prominent in research and development. It contributed to: (1) cybernetics with regulatory systems and signals of communication and control; (2) informatics with programming languages for algorithms and digital computers; and (3) cryptography with encryption, codes and ciphers for secure and private information communication. Cybernetics is the scientific study of moderation and frena (i.e., steering, governing, guiding, directing, and conducting) in animal and machine (i.e., natural and artificial organisms) that interact and experience with a stream (e.g., current and flux) of data. Artificial and natural intelligence, as machine and human learning and knowledge, exists in intersection of informational engineering and biological science. In the processing realm of filters of electrical and neural signals, modulators (interrupters, commutators, disjunctors, connectors, transducers, receptors, inhibitors, and activators) control the passage of messengers (connection, conduction and transmission of currents).


With myth being fundamental to the history as a mnemonic illustration of significance, the following fictional sketch describes and depicts the nomenclature of electrotechnics. In explaining the electrochemical cell, Faraday coined the terms anode, cathode and ion. Imagine the path, line or curve of electric current is East to West as the Sun apparently traverses the Earth's sky. In the ion (from the Greek ión or ἰόν meaning "going") solution of the cell divided by the semipermeable membrane, current exits the anode (ánodos or ᾰ̓́νοδος meaning "upper way") on the East side to enter the cathode (káthodos or κᾰ́θοδος meaning "nether way") on the West side just as the Sun ascends and descends. Or more technically correct, the electrons rise in the East and set in the West, transferring energy for physical systems. At the anode, oxidation occurs resulting in electrons lost to the oxidant or oxidising agent. The reductant or reducing agent, as the cathode, gains electrons in a reduction reaction. Electrons (from the Latin for "amber, brimstone, alloy of silver and gold", a resinous sap conflated with a secretion of musk-like odour from the cachalot whale with is capital spermaceti) are negatively charged subatomic particles whose motion or flow is the source of electric current. By convention, current flows opposite of the movement of electrons. That is, positive charges descend the gradient of the electric potential (energy per unit charge) difference, whilst negative charges ascend. Ions are produced in the reduction and oxidation reactions. When electrons flow from the negative anode to the positive cathode in the electric circuit, a cation is a positively charged ion produced at the anode that flows to the cathode, whilst an anion is a negatively charged ion produced at the cathode that flows to the anode. Electric charges produce an electromagnetic field of force. Consistent with Newton's third law where all forces occur in equal magnitude and opposite direction pairs of action and reaction, like charges repel and unlike charges attract.


Electrical circuits with resistive, capacitive and inductive elements connected by conductive material to sources of current and potential are, in general, linear and thus analysable by superposition. If linear, the output (produced signal) of a circuit, whose input is a linear combination of contributing signals, is equal to the linear combination of outputs produced by the separate input of the contributing signals. A response to plural stimuli (the amplitude or magnitude of an effect resulting from the signals of the causes) is equal to the sum of the individual responses to each stimulus (a linear function). The superposition principle corresponds to an additive and multiplicative (homogenous) function. Linear systems are governed by linear differential equations (gradient polynomials that relate functions and their derivatives). The phenomenon of diffraction and interference (a distortion or disturbance), which is constructive when the phase difference between the waves in propagation is a parity (multiple divisible by two) of π radians and is destructive when the difference is an imparity (multiple indivisible by two) of π radians, is an example of superposition. Periodic functions can be represented (decomposed in analysis and composed in synthesis, analogous to a transformation) as an infinite series (a finite sum in approximation) of component sinusoids (harmonic sine and cosine functions with coefficients and integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, which can be represented on a circle as phase and magnitude spectrum). In colloquial and electrotechnical speech, declaring someone "non-linear" amounts to an insult of their intelligence (e.g., calling them "mad, stupid, moronic, insane" or a "fool, imbecile, idiot, maniac" for an absence of reason or "wit" similar to the logical error and formal fallacy of a non sequitur) because of the difficulty of resolving these systems. Electronic circuits, typically non-linear, consist of these passive components (conductors, resistors, capacitors, inductors, and diodes) and the active components of transistors and amplifiers. Impedance is a complex number (with a magnitude and polar phase angle) of real resistance (i.e., of a resistor) and imaginary reactance (i.e., of a capacitor or inductor).

Foundational to diodes, transistors and semiconductors, a p–n junction consists of a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with connected between two terminals. Between these two terminals, p-type (positive in reference to doped interstitial electron holes) and n-type (negative in reference to doped electrons in the valence shell of the neutral atoms) semiconductor materials are created. Dopant atoms are added to the silicon crystal lattice to donate or accept an electron in the covalent bonds of the structure, causing the donor in the n-type to have a positive charge and the acceptor in the p-type to have a negative charge. Conjoining the regions at the junction results in the regions being neutral at equilibrium. The charge carriers diffuse (the electrons in the n-type to the p-type and the holes in the p-type to the n-type). This creates an electric field in the zone with a total charge at the junction, known as the space charge depletion region, that provides a force opposing the charge diffusion. The p-type and n-type terminal are respectively called the anode and cathode because of this electric field directed from the positively charged holes to the negatively charged electrons. The bias or application of an external potential modifies the resistance (inverse of conductance) caused by the internal potential, and therefore current in one direction (anode to cathode). The positive potential applied to the p-type material and negative potential applied to the n-type material respectively repels the holes and electrons, thereby diminishing the breadth of the depletion zone and the magnitude of the electric field counteracting diffusion and recombination.

Glass, which transmits, reflects and refracts light, is used for artistic, habitational, domestic, industrial and scientific laboratory purposes such as window panes and glassware. For obvious reasons, light and therefore the vitreous medium of glass are elemental to the solar symbolism of Atlantean culture. Glass is essential to optic and optoelectronic technologies, whether optical lenses, discs, or fibres. The latter is used for fibre-optic telecommunication networks, and fibreglass reinforced plastic and moulded polymer matrices. Glass is a dielectric material, i.e. it is an electrical insulator that can be polarised by an applied electric field. Capacitors contain two electrical conductors (metallic plate surfaces) separated by a dielectric medium. Optical reflectors (mirrors, analogous to acoustic and atomic mirrors) that reflect visible light (electromagnetic radiation perceptible with the human eye) are constructed from glass. The oldest form of glass is of silica or silicon dioxide, of which the majority is the sand of coastal and continental environments. Related quartz, or crystalline silicon dioxide tetrahedra, is used for its piezoelectric prosperities in electronic movements. The face of timepieces are often sapphire (aluminium oxide crystal, or a polyhedric and crystalline solid material), one of the hardest (most dure) minerals after crystalline silicon carbide and carbon (diamond). Unlike quartz, silicate glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) and transparent solid. With high resistivity (the inverse of conductivity), like ceramics (from silicate clay, with vitrification or terra cocta, which is Latin for "baked earth") and unlike metals, glass is a durable electrical and thermal insulator. Glass may be decorated with vitreous enamel, which is powdered glass that fuses to the surface. It is produced with the additives of soda (sodium carbonate), lime (calcium oxide), magnesium oxide, aluminium oxide, potassium oxide, and boron trioxide (from mineral borax or tincal). Polymer glass is synthetic and plastic like natural latex gum and resin. Plastic (irreversible) and elastic (reversible) deformation, and ultimate fracture, is correlated to the material properties of ductility and malleability.

In lenses, the focal distance to the focus where axial light from infinity converges (or appears to, if it diverges) depends on the concave or convex radial curvature of the surface of the refractive material. The formation of real or virtual images depends the curvature of the lens and the location of the object relative to the focal distance. Real images are formed by the convergence (as opposed to the extension of the divergence for virtual images) of light rays that can project at a real location. In vision, the eye (composed of the cornea, sclera, iris, pupil, ciliary muscle, sphincter, etc.) functions as a lens, receiving light (illumination through an aperture) as visual stimulus from the from the external world of observation. It projects a scale replica of this visual field onto the retina at the rear of the eye. At the retina the transduction of the visual signals to neural signals occurs. These ocular sensory data (information) connect by the optic nerve fibres to neural circuits and cerebral structures for filtering and processing. The detection of objects and motion is by the apparent contrast generated, or the difference of light luminance (luminous intensity) or colour (wavelength, or the inverse frequency, that is represented with the symbol λ or lambda, which indicates the unrelated eigenvalue). The single-lens reflex (reflection of light by a mirror at an 45 degree angle, with a projection to a pentaprism for internal reflection to be viewed as an appearance in the ocular lens) camera is popular in photography. The photographic camera functions control light sensitivity of the film or sensory matrix (transducers), obturator velocity (duration of exposure to the light projected by objective lens), and aperture (the diaphragm of the objective with a diameter in terms of focal distance that controls exposure to light and profundity of field). The transducer to the image medium is an analogue transparent plastic substrate as a latent photochemical image in a colloid suspension, or a digital photoreceptor of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitors or transistors that represents the image as pixels in the (magnetic disc or band, or electronic solid-state) memory of the integrated circuit. These sensory detectors replaced and substituted the cathode ray tubes (a dissector that focuses the light or photons of a scene onto the photocathode that emits electrons in the photoelectric effect where the magnitude of the electric current at the anode is proportional to the luminance of the image) in videographic cameras.


Electronics can be analogue (of continuous value signals) or digital (of discrete value signals) and can have the form an integrated circuit (IC) in a semiconductor substrate. Semiconductors, frequently field-effect transistors (FETs) called MOSFETs used for the ICs of microprocessors (computer processors) and memories, are primarily fabricated from silicon. Other semiconductors include diodes (from díodos or δίοδος meaning "through way"), which were also advanced by the General Electric Labs and the Novan Institute and Laboratory (NIL) at the Novan University of Technology (NUT). FETs modify the electrical conductivity of the semiconductor substrate (or current channel) between the drain and source by the electric field caused by the potential polarisation applied at the gate. The MOSFET was developed by engineers at the General Electric Labs in Alpenburg. Logic gates are typically constructed from the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) type of MOSFET fabrication process. These "ports", organised in combinational and sequential systems, implement Boolean functions that are logical connectives of multiple entries (propositions) of binary inputs (internal states) with the single production (truth) of a binary (base-2) output (external state). Connective operations include conjunction (AND), inclusive disjunction (OR), negation (NOT), disjunctive negation (NAND), conjunctive negation (NOR), exclusive disjunction (XOR), biconditional (XNOR), conditional (IMPLY), and non-implication (NIMPLY). The first three connectives are related in an equivalency by the theorems that express: (1) the negation (complement) of a disjunction (union) is the conjunction (intersection) of the negations (complements); and (2) the negation (complement) of a conjunction (intersection) is the disjunction (union) of the negations (complements).

Non-volatile solid-state memories resemble either NOR or NAND gates, which respectively permit direct and sequential access. Volatile solid-state memories are either dynamic or static, implementing a bistable multivibrator where the two stable states are capable of memorisation of binary information. The connectors and protocols used by a serial or parallel bus in the interconnection (communication of data transmission) with computers and peripheral components by ports and controllers are normalised. In computation, abstract machines recognise formal grammars and languages. A common machine the finite state automaton, where the transition from current (present or actual) to next (future or sequent) states can be either deterministic or nondeterministic. Sequential and combinational logic is used to construct these automata. Output in the former circuit depends on past and present input signals (i.e., possess the capacity of memory of states, which is either synchronous or asynchronous, meaning a mutation in state occurs in a simultaneous propagation at the impulse of an oscillation), whilst the output in the latter depends only on present input signals. In a stochastic model (discrete-time chain or continuous-time process) of state space where the statistical (independent and identically distributed) probability that an event (an aleatory variable) in a sequence occurs depends solely on the immediately previous (anterior) event, the future states of the system (conditional on past and present states) depends only upon the present state (not on the sequence of events that preceded it). Mutation of states are transitions, which are associated with conditional probabilities (e.g., the probability that an event occurs knowing the previous state, which is equivalent to the probability that both the event and state occurs divided by the marginal probability of the state). The system can vary in observability, and with either autonomy or control.


Human knowledge (cognisance) comprises science, art, philosophy and ideas. In a sensitive and pensive poise with human existence, all of the mind is conscious and unconscious cognitive information processing. The mind is a system of neural signals for control and decision processes. The conceptual and perceptual cognisance functions as the interpretative and representative model of the world or reality of human experience. Cogitation is a mental form that integrates cognition and imagination as conception ("thought") in a creative flow of ideas (e.g., concepts and images) and associations. Sensation is a mental form created from the perception of the sensory receptors responding to a stimulus, and the senses interacting with experience. According to David Hume, "all the objects of human reason or enquiry" are either a priori knowledge (relations of ideas that are independent of experience) from deductive reasoning or a posteriori knowledge (matters of fact that are dependent of experience) from inductive reasoning. Induction relies on causation, or the causal inference of the perceived sequences of events (i.e., correlations of cause preceding effect in the interactions of objects). Theories are only considered scientific, with reasoning insufficient, when the following qualities are present:

  • parsimony (i.e., the "razor" of Ockham)

  • falsifiability

  • empiricism

This definition of science is in disagreement, however, with Plato. Carl Sagan criticised Plato who he argued:

    "believed that ideas were far more real than the natural world. . . . Plato expressed hostility to observation and experiment. He taught contempt for the real world and disdain for the practical application of scientific knowledge. Plato's followers succeeded in extinguishing the light of science and experiment that had been kindled by Democritus and the other Ionians.

Democritus, and the succeeding materialist Epicurus, are credited with first proposing the atomic theory of the matter of the Universe, pre-dating the empirical-model of modern science. Empirical originates from the ancient Greek empeiria (ἐμπειρία) meaning "experiment, in test", whose meaning is related to the Latin experientia that means "trial". In the empiricism of Aristotle, the human mind is a tabula rasa in which experience is recorded or registered as cognisance, through perception and reason and by intelligence and sapience. Empiricism requires hypotheses be testable by experiment and measurement (experimentation and observation). In the realisation of the ceteris paribus condition of experiment and scientific inquiry, the empirical scientist controls for all independent variables as constants except the one manipulated for the response of the dependent variable. Predictions are derived from tested hypotheses, whether the resulting evidence accepts or rejects it, that inform future hypotheses. The basis of a scientific theory is the evolution and accumulation of hypotheses confirmed by experimental evidence. A theory, as an explanation or interpretation of phenomena in Nature corroborated by empirical evidence, becomes a "fact" by scientific consensus (i.e., reality, being a social construct). In the scientific method, science as knowledge is created by conjecture and refutation, a procedure of response and criticism.


In the chase for significance and probability, statistics (the political science of state and population cohorts) is the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Veracity, as the exactitude of correct fact in reference to perfect value, is composed by the quantifiable dimensions of accuracy (systematic error of tendency from expectation) and precision (variability or dispersion from empirical repetition). The conceptual value of verity or truth is a logical proposition of "faith, honour, fact" with the quality of "veracity, fidelity, factuality, loyalty, sincerity, probity, authenticity" and in opposition of falsity and mendacity. The negation of the value of false is true, trig, very, veracious, or right. Hume in A Treatise of Human Nature, his statement of philosophical empiricism, scepticism and naturalism, argues that inference of cause and effect cannot be justified by reason but that human faith and credence in this presumption is of mental supposition. The inability to demonstrate that the future will resemble the past (for a future with a significant difference is conceivable) and prove, which presupposes the future will resemble the past (by expectations from an association of facts that proceed from past experience of a sequences of events or series of observations), impedes the rational justification of induction. The cognitive and imaginative human mind attributes causation (as probability of truth) to phenomena (based on the foundation of resemblance) from reoccurring (probable, as in able to be tested and proved, but not certain) conclusions of a connection and interrelation of conjoined objects. For example, the inductive inference of the conjunction of the singular effect of the Universe and the singular (and unobserved) cause of a deity, as extended objects, cannot be justified. The appearance of certainty in reality corresponds to demonstrable probability, which is distinct from specious plausibility and conceivable possibility.

Correlation, as a statistical association, is not technically equivalent to dependence so it does not imply (is not a sufficient condition for) causation. Causal factors proceed effectual existence if and only if the factors had not occurred the consequence would not exist. Correlation is a mathematical operation equal to the integral of the product of two functions that measures the similarity (e.g., a common characteristic by producing a third function that expresses how one modifies the form of the other) of the functions. For two aleatory (stochastic) variables, their correlation results in a probability density function (the relative probability that the variable would equal a determinate value) that is the difference of that of the latter with the former. Convolution, where one function is inverted and translated, the resulting probability density function is the sum. From the observation (experience) of reality, two actual classes or conditions can be predicted. A true negative or positive occurs when an actual negative or positive condition is predicted to be such. Conversely, a false negative or positive are an erred and incorrect conclusion. This classification is similar to hypothesis tests. In this procedure the negative and positive conditions are respectively the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. Acceptance of the null hypothesis, if either correct or incorrect respectively, is analogous to a true or false negative. It is the assumption to be tested in the decision process. Rejection of a true or false null hypothesis is a false or true positive. Precision is equivalent to the ratio of true positives to the total of true and false positives, whereas accuracy is equivalent to the ratio of true positives and negatives to the total of positives and negatives. The ratio of true positives to false negatives is the sensitivity whilst the ratio of true negatives to false positives is the specificity of the classification function model. An example of this process occurs in a legal trial. The null hypothesis is the presumption of innocence and the alternative hypothesis is the culpability of the defendant. Absolution corresponds to a true or false negative if the defendant is innocent or culpable. Condemnation corresponds to a false or true positive for the identical conditions of truth prior to the probable demonstration and judgement of evidence.


Statistical inference derives the posterior probability of a consequence of two antecedents: (1) a prior probability and (2) a function of verisimilitude, which is derived from a statistical model for the observed data. It relates the probability a hypothesis affected by evidence or information (singular: datum; plural: data). The posterior probability estimates the conditional probability of the hypothesis given (date) the observed evidence. The prior probability is the probability of the hypothesis anterior to the present observed evidence. The model evidence is the marginal probability (verisimilitude) for all possible hypotheses. The function of verisimilitude is the probability and compatibility of observing the evidence given the hypothesis. The posterior probability is the mathematical product of the function of verisimilitude and the prior probability divided by the model evidence. This methodology of inference has profound implications in the conduct and comportment in decisions of biological systems. In El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote articulates the dilemma between arms (praxis or action) and letters (poiesis or creation). Autopoiesis as a structure in space refers to a system (machine or mechanism) with the capacity or ability for self-organisation in the functional processes of operation. The autopoietic system, in its transformations and interactions, continuously regenerates and realises the relations responsible for its production. The eukaryote cell, an autonomous living system maintained by the influence of information, energy, and matter, is an example. In contrast, an allopoietic system uses material to generate an organised structure other than itself. The structure of an autopoietic systems is coupled with its medium, embodied (integrated and incorporated) in a continuous dynamic of mutations of sensory and motor states. Noogenesis (from the Greek νόος or nous meaning "intelligence, intellect, sense, spirit, reason") is the emergence and evolution (the natal origin and creation) of the mind (mental system) in the body (corporal system), of which cosmogenesis (Universe), geogenesis (Earth), biogenesis (life), and anthropogenesis (humanity) precedes. This self-organisation is the "making of sense" of the world by the inference of evidence from experience.

The brain mediates collection and interpretation of immersive reality as statistical model and conceptual idea. It is cerebral centre with functional segregation (specialisation) and integration (connection). Distribution of processes and responses, or the operations of statistical and correlational dependency (i.e., a synergy, or coupled and syntonised, effects of causes), occurs in the neuronal states (variables). The causal architecture and hierarchical structure of the world is recapitulated by the neuronal connections and dispositions.The free energy principle states that biological systems minimise a variational free energy objective function of their internal states, obscured from their external milieu (place, ambient and habitat). These self-organising systems limit their internal states to maintain non-equilibrium homeostasis. The frontier (separation or distinction) of internal (subjective) and external (objective) states is essential to the existence of the structural system. A system exists in space and time in its resistance (ascent on its probability distribution and the dynamic flow of its states to maximise model evidence or the evidence of its existence) to dispersion or dissipation by stochastic fluctuations. The active observations of the system are an implicit active inference that maximises the evidence for its model. The approximation of model evidence is a function of observations of effects and the probability density of their causes. The probabilistic model of the world predicts effects from hypothetical causes. For a space and organism, the external states cause sensory and effect motor states. These states of sensation (perception) and motion (action) depend on each other. The internal states (conception) cause motion and effect sensation. Approximation relates to the process of estimation (calculation of a value of information dependent on data points collected or obtained in experimentation through imputation and computation) by interpolation (construction by a function inferred from experimental observations) and extrapolation (projection, extension or expansion of experience in conjecture).

The basic unit of information is the bit (binary digit), which is the entropy (the expected value of self-information or information content derived from the probability of an event) of a binary stochastic variable with the capacity to carry information. The value (corresponding to two possible logical states) of the variable has an equal probability of being zero or one. The character and integer (octet or octad) data types are defined as eight bits (two Linksexadecimal or base-16 digits) such that it can represent decimal values from zero to 255. The upper limit of self-information, of the information content and model evidence, is the inverse of free energy. The minimisation of free energy occurs in the maximisation of model evidence or the minimisation of surprise (that is the upper free energy limit). To minimise free energy is to place an upper limit of the entropy (mean or median of surprise) of the internal states of the system. Surprise is the difference between the model of conception and the sense of perception, which is minimised in continuous correction and reaction that transforms the external state into expectation. The model, an accurate and parsimonious description with the tension of consistency and simplicity, reflects the reality of human habitation. The visual and aural systems (vision and audition) consist of the ventral stream and dorsal stream. The perceptual function of ventral system is recognition and identification, which requires memory (record) and attention of salient stimuli and responses. It is sensitive to spatial frequencies whose reference is allocentric (object and other centred). The active function of the dorsal system is relative location and repetition. It is sensitive to temporal frequencies whose reference is egocentric (subject and self centred), as is necessary for sensory and motor coordination of the physical body (embodied mind) in space. The mind (brain) exists in and uses a body. The body carries the sensations (senses) and the motion (acts) that the mind manipulates in the sampling (acquisition and accumulation) of information. The brain is not a passive sensory filter but an active inferential process constituted of mind and body.

The perception of things (objects) is a reflection of what they offer as the virtue of their good and service or as the opportunity of their utility from action. It is a complementarity of the animal and the ambient, the act and the percept. The exchange between the internal space of the animal and the external space of the ambient is transposable. The beauty of this symmetry is that the action of the animal becomes the perception of the ambient, and the perception of the animal becomes the action of the ambient. The self, as an incorporation of the mind in body, is incorporated in the world. The cognitive processes of the mind depend upon the situation of the body. Cognition originates from the dynamic action and relation between an animal organism and its ambient. These cognitive systems participate in the external generation of the significance in the sense of internal impression (the transformation, representation, construction, organisation, or conception of information). Experience of reality results from the mutual interaction between the capacities of the animal and the ambient. The mind, body, and experience are interconnected as one entity. The eyes and hand are also organs of cognition. A being, in a form of cognition, realises self-cognisance (i.e., the recognition of sentience or a conscious existence) in its experience and embodiment (incorporation and personification) in the world. An embodied being (self) is able to generate a model of their physical capacities of actions from observations of their intentions, which is extendable as a reflection (mirror) to inferences about their comprehensions of others.

The model sustains well-being and the probability of survival. The disconnection from norms and regulations is common to the social (categorical) extremes of madness and genius, where the creative Linkfaculty of these artists and scientists to explore (experiment, inquire, and investigate) ideas, hypotheses or constructs is unrestricted (i.e., they "think differently"). Lithium (from the Greek λίθος or líthos meaning "stone") is the third element in the periodic table—after hydrogen and helium, respectively meaning "water generator" and "sun". As an alkali (from the Arabic اَلْقِلْي‎ or al-qily meaning "ashes, cinders") metal, its atom is reactive with one valence electron and frequently forms a cation. Relative to the other alkali metals, it is reactivity is minor because the proximity of the electron to the nucleus. In chemistry (originally "alchemy" from the Arabic اَلْكِيمِيَاء‎ or al-kīmiyāʾ, itself from the Greek χῠμείᾱ or khumeíā meaning "fluid"), aqueous alkaline solutions are used in conjunction with glycerides to induce the caustic process of saponification in order to produce soaps. In psychopharmacology, lithium carbonate (an ionic salt, natural like sodium chloride, with a polyatomic anion composed of carbon and oxygen) is effective as a pharmacotherapeutic medication for the stabilisation of affective bipolarity, a disturbance characterised by its disorder (caprice and vagary) of "humours" (animate states and emotive dispositions). Alkaloids are organic nitrogen compounds of plant origin similar to the animal amines that include amino acids and neurotransmitters. For example, opium (the latex juice or sap of the floral poppy plant), coca and qat contain alkaloids. With a pronounced physiological action, alkaloids have been used and abused as (natural and synthetic) medicinal drugs. Their classifications include antimicrobial, psychedelic, hallucinogenic, narcotic, anaesthetic, analgesic, soporific, sedative, depressive, dissociative, and stimulative effects.

Amines are critical for the nervous system. In neurotransmission, a stimulus, if it surpasses the liminal potential, initiates an action potential on the presynaptic cytoplasmic (cell or plasma) membrane. This unidirectional and electrochemical gradient depolarisation propagated (in retroaction or realimentation) by the activated sodium channels that causes the regulatory calcium channels to increase the current permeability of the cell. In effect, this liberates the molecular signals (neurotransmitters) from the synaptic vesicles of an axon (nerve fibre) terminal of the neurone (nerve cell). After exocytosis, the neurotransmitters diffuse across the chemical synapse structure to react and unite with the chemical receptors of dendrite of another (postsynaptic) neurone. This activation is a signal transduction with an excitatory or inhibitory response that generates an amplified or attenuated action potential that is integrated in the processes of spatial or temporal summation. When their received ligations deactivate, the neurotransmitters diffuse to be degraded (inactivated or metabolised) by enzymes (catalyst proteins) or transported by proteins to the presynaptic membrane. These transporter proteins create transmembrane ion concentration gradients and electrochemical potential to reabsorb the neurotransmitters in the axon terminal where they are internalised by a vesicle in endocytosis. The inhibition of this recapture can modify physical conduct through mental states and dispositions. The potassium ion channels return the axon to the repose state potential in the repolarisation of the excitable membrane, with the inactivation resulting in a refractory period.


DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the antiparallel spiral or double helix of complementary nitrogenous bases of cytosine, guanine, adenine or thymine that is organised as structures (known as chromosomes of eukaryote cells) containing sequential genetic information for instructional and functional development. In what is called the central dogma of molecular biology, gene expression as protein synthesis occurs two processes: transcription and translation. DNA is copied (transcribed) as RNA (ribonucleic acid, in messenger, transfer and ribosomal forms where thymine is replaced by uracil) to be decoded as amino acids for proteins (polypeptides). Ribosomes, which consist of rRNA and protein, transduce (translate) mRNA to synthesise proteins by the induction of complementary tRNA anticodons sequences (that carry amino acids) to mRNA codons. The sequence (arrangement and disposition) of the nucleobases, which comprise a nucleotide with an organophosphate and deoxyribose, encodes genetic information. The genetic code of the "sense" specifies the sequence of amino acids. Nucleotides comprise the helical spine whose orientation determines the directionality of the spiral. The nucleobases form a complementary base pair where purines are hydrogen bonded (in covalent and electrostatic ligation) with pyrimidines (i.e., cytosine with guanine and adenine with thymine or uracil). The phenotype of a cell (the observable characteristics of an organism including its morphological and physiological form, function, structures, and processes) is determined by innate and acquired factors (genetic genotype, epigenetic mechanisms, and ecological conditions). In cell division, DNA is replicated and transmitted to be received by progeny in reproduction (the construction of an identical or similar copy of the dynamic system itself from a coded representation).

In the photosynthesis of phototrophic organisms (eukaryotic plants and algae, and prokaryotic cyanobacteria and phytoplankton), radiant electromagnetic energy (solar photons or quanta from natural or artificial light) absorbed by chlorophyll in chloroplasts is converted to chemical energy to be stored (in the long-term, compared to the short-term molecular energetic current of intercellular energy transfer) as carbohydrate molecules for use by an organism. These molecules are synthesised from carbon dioxide and water (hydrogen dioxide that supplies electrons), with oxygen produced. In result, this process supplies most of the energy necessary for life on Earth, and produced the oxygenation (oxidation) of the terrestrial atmosphere and oceanic hydrosphere. The chloroplasts are proposed by endosymbiotic theory to have been photosynthetic bacteria acquired by endocytosis and adapted to life in eukaryote plant cells. Similar to mitochondrion, which generates most of the chemical energy of the cell, chloroplasts have an independent genome separate from that of nuclei (nuclear DNA of the cell) although most cellular DNA (as linear chromosomes with genes for proteins of cell function) is located in the nucleus. The genomes of mitochondria (as circular chromosomes) are substantially similar to that of bacteria. The chemical reaction or transformation of metabolism, the endergonic and exergonic processes of anabolism (biosynthesis) and catabolism, is necessary for vital maintenance of structures in cellular organisms. Cellular respiration, which is an exothermic reaction (analogous to a controlled combustion) that oxidises nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) for chemical energy for biosynthesis, locomotion and membrane transport, is opposite of the endothermic process of photosynthesis. Meiosis is a mode of sexual reproduction, which in two cellular divisions (1) exchanges maternal and paternal genetic information in the chromosomal crossing of the duplication of homologous chromosomes from DNA replication, and (2) produces haploid (monoploid) gametes that fuse as a zygote to generate diploid somatic cells with pairs of chromosomes. A zygote is an oval (egg) cell fertilised by a sperm cell, or two fused gametes, which is unlike a spore that germinates. Mitosis separates replicated chromosomes in a cell nucleus to duplicate a diploid cell that is divided into two identical cells.

The organisms (i.e., natural and physical systems with organisation) of ecosystems can be categorised in a sort by trophic level, which are interrelated by the transfer of energy or biomass. Producers (autotrophs) produce their own aliment in the energy conversion processes of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. Decomposers (distinct from detritivores that ingest nutrients) decompose organic material and the detritus of plants (as phytophages) and animals (as zoophages) by absorbing and metabolising nutrient molecules with osmosis. The matter is converted to inorganic chemicals that are absorbed by producers as mineral nutrients in the terrestrial, oceanic, and aquatic medium. Consumers (heterotrophs including herbivores, carnivores or omnivores) consume the biomass produced by producers. The energy is transferred from a lower trophic level to a higher one is inefficient. Energy is lost as thermal energy (in respiration, egestion and dissipation) with the transfer from the production of chemical energy to the consumption (ingestion, assimilation and reproduction) of biomass. Orcas, lions, eagles, wolves, and humans are super predators as consumers that are not natural prey. The relations of symbiosis are categorised in possible types by the benefit of interaction in species or organisms. An interaction between agonists (agents or individual participants) is commensal if one is benefited and the other is not affected. If the benefit for one is the damage of the other, the persistent biological interaction is parasitic. Mutual or reciprocal benefit contrasts with the damage of interference in competition. Interactive antagonism (asymmetrical competition and conflict) occurs if one is damaged by the presence of another that experiences no effect. These relations exclude the brief interactions of predation. Cooperation or mutual interaction is either obligatory or facultative with the survival of the symbionts is respectively dependent or independent. The adaptation of symbiosis is a physical union (attachment, accessory and affection) that is either conjunctive or disjunctive. Scarcity (the limitation of conditions, resources, factors, elements, and variables) in ecosystems facilitates competition and determines the vital evolution (natural and genetic selection, structural and dynamic population, material and organic composition, and elemental and genomic organisation) of the natural (biological and ecological) process.

Human physiology is reflected in the symbols and systems of technology. For example, the hand (digits and palm) are symbols of Palmaism. The palm represents the the solar disc, and the digits, solar rays. The hand is a structural system that is imperative for collection, actuation, manipulation, and the manufacture of equipment (implements and instruments). Human hands are special as primates with their thumbs (pollices) opposable to the index finger and the three other digits. This mechanical specialisation permits precise and tactile gripping of artificial utensils and natural objects. Facultative (circumstantial or optional) bipedalism evolved as an obligatory functional adaptation when it became the primary method (habit) for locomotion, transportation, and chase. The eyes are fundamental to the the pursuit of visual stimuli (in the actions of experience, surveillance, and observation). Version is the symmetrical and synchronous movement of the binocular eyes. The mouth (the oral or buccal cavity) is the orifice (aperture) where comestibles are ingested in the alimentary canal for digestion. In communication, it (including the relative position of labial, dental, lingual, and vocal structures) is the location that modifies phonetic articulation and sound production in human language. Sensation and action (e.g., creation, construction, and fabrication in technical design) depends on these structures and organs. Because of the anthropocentrism of design, the human corporal (formal and functional) structure is divided into physiological (spatial and anatomical) planes. These relative dimensions of physical anatomy section the body.

The transverse (horizontal or axial) plane is parallel to the ground or to the horizon of Earth. It separates the body into cranial (capital or cephalic head, with the facial, oral, nasal, and ocular regions situated in the rostral front) and caudal (tail) locations, which are respectively superior and inferior. The longitudinal planes are perpendicular to the transverse plane and the ground. They are the coronal (frontal or vertical) and sagittal (anteroposterior or median) planes. The coronal plane divides the body into the posterior (dorsal) and anterior (ventral) sections. The sagittal plane supposes bilateral symmetry to bisect the naval and spine (spinal cord or vertebral column) and to form a quadrant with the umbilical transverse plane. Dividing dextrous right and sinister left, its name means "arrow, fletch, pile (of an arc or bow)". The transverse, coronal, and sagittal planes are respectively equivalent to the x-z, x-y, and y-z planes (i.e., formed by two of the x-, y- and z-axes, or the abscissa, ordinate and applicate axial coordinate lines of three-dimensional space with an origin and orientation) and intersections. The planes of location define the direction of motion. An appendix or member of an organism is distal (an extremity) or proximal (a point that joins). The organ or tissue (e.g., fibrous muscle and subcutaneous dermal connective tissue that supplement the skeleton with cartilage, tendons, and ligaments) of an organism is superficial or profound (visceral and parietal). In motion, flexion describes an angular motion that diminishes the angle between a segment and its proximal segment. Extension is the opposite, describing movement that augments the angle. Abduction is motion that distances (displaces) a structure from the central median, whilst adduction is the opposite. Circumduction is a conical motion in a combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction. Eversion and inversion is the turn of a structure in the direction of the median. Elevation is in the superior direction from the horizontal, whilst depression is motion in the inferior direction. The rotation of internal (medial) rotators is in the direction of the centre of the body whilst that of external (lateral) rotators is the opposite. Supination and pronation respectively refers to the the ventral and the dorsal direction facing up. Protraction (protrusion) and retraction (retrusion) are anterior and posterior movements. Muscles coordinate the synergy (biomechanic movement) in activation and inhibition (of contraction, torsion, and rotation) as agonists and antagonists (flexors and extensors, or abductor and adductors).


The struggle of existence for living beings (vital existence) is not for energy but for thermodynamic entropy from the flux of energy in the physical and natural system of the biosphere. In contrast to the dissipation, the absorption of photons permits energy conversion and transduction in the chemical (photochemical and electrochemical) reactions of photosynthesis and respiration (vectorial transport processes). Information content is encoded in the physical (or chemical) system such that applied work increases or augments order, or diminishes or reduces entropy of the medium. The information is encode in the potential gradients of a local system that define the states of the codification element. A more stable gradient is more effective. Informational entropy is equivalent to thermodynamic entropy when binary code states are identified with binary physical states. Both entropies as probability functions relate degrees of freedom (dimensions of the variable vector, or number of independent coordinates that a dynamic system is able to exist and specify its complete position within imposed constraints, restraints, constrictions, restrictions or limitations) in the system of energy or matter but with different unit constants. In engineering problems where the mechanism is important, informational semantics is irrelevant. Semantic content (the significance of a message) burdens with no additional "charge" (thermodynamic cost of energy) in codification, transmission, and translation. In biology, the message of the genome is encoded in the genotype to specify the phenotype, or the organism expressed and tested in the functional context of physical or natural experience. The sequence of a genome defines the semantic content. Emergent structural and functional properties depend on the processing of semantic content that permits the amplification in complexity of the combinatorial possibilities (extensions, dimensions, adaptations, and interactions) in spacetime. The informational complexity of the genome is determined by the 4n possibilities inherent in a genetic code of four bases in an n-length sequence. Triplet codes of codons specify 20 amino acids that compose the sequence of proteins. Emergence depends on semantics to extend combinatorial possibilities to the apparent phenotypical complexity. Combinatorial complexity is amplified from one-dimension (DNA and RNA) to two-dimensions (chromosomes of sexual reproduction), and through translation to three-dimensions (proteins in interactions with other molecules and cells) and to four-dimensions (phenotype of cellular organisms with tissues, organs, structures, controls, and metabolic and enzymatic catalysis). Information content is exchanged for complexity in the amplification.

All living beings are Linkchronognostic (conscious of time) in temporal sensation (perception) and cognition (conception). Vital conduct by corporal and mental mechanisms adapt in response to the stimuli received from the dynamic ambient. Organisms of chronognosis expect the future relative to its present state. An external signal is transmitted for internal processing. Animals, which have a characteristic spatial mobility, have circadian rhythm ("clocks") that regulate temporal metabolic functions to biochemical references. The dissipation of the energy absorbed from solar radiation as the disorder of heat (a consequence of entropy) is retarded by the chemical and metabolic reactions of the biosphere. This permits temporary order for the complexity, potential, maintenance and evolution of life. With human perception and conception, nothing actually enters the cerebral cortex. The physical or chemical medium for transmission intercepts the channels of sensation that processes in a hierarchical interpretation by association of memories. These vehicles or carriers impinge with the external (corporal) sensory interfaces or the sensations of gustation, vision, audition, tactition, and olfaction. This creates the experience of the apparent insubstantial nature of internal (mental) processes. The motor cortex coordinates motion (with the hands having a dominate representation). In communication, the semantic significance of the information transmitted is only accessible in translation (transduction), and is only valuable in context. Translation (interpretation or recognition) and reproduction (replication or duplication) represent semantic inheritance that is subject to mutation, evolution and selection.

The reality of the world is one nested multiplicity of a united (natural, physical, and universal) substance. It is partitioned in three realms that interconnect and interrelate. The first realm is an external reality of spatial objects, temporal events, corporal entities, and material forms. The second realm is an internal reality of conscious conduct of mental processes, individual systems, and personal subjects. The subjectivity of each ego of the second realm recognises the other beings as objects. Each being experiences (perceives and receives) the first realm of spacetime through transduction (translation) of subjective acts (sensation and motion). In conversation, the beings exchange (conceive and transmit) the transduction, mutation, creation, and association of ideas and memory (cognition). The third realm is a semantic reality of cognisance, culture, art, science, history, myth, religion, philosophy, virtue, society, possibility, and technology. This collective and passive realm educates the active beings of the second realm with interpretative, representative and constructive ideas that they replicate, mutate and create. Human civilisation revolves around communication through abstractions like language as an implementation of the physical mechanisms, resulting in the development of archival, technical and social institutions. The invention of syntax, grammar, letters, numbers, scripts and writing amplified semantic, symbolic, and vocal language. The symbols of language result in a vocabulary or lexicon of words whose combinations result in a multiplicity of ideas. Humans developed an extended memory of coherent "images" of actual and ideal events in the real and possible (the material, abstract, virtual, and probable, by binomial multiplication) that record spatial and temporal context. They reflect, as an internal cognitive representation, the senses and moves of the being in the external (physical and natural) world. The informational capacity is used and manipulated for projection, prediction, and the realisation of perception and conception. Symbolic representation of the mental images occurs as their abstraction in illustrations and descriptions. As an iterative process of verification and falsification, the method of individual (personal) education reflects the development of the human civilisation and social condition. This development places language as essential to the communal coexistence (social cohesion, organisation, obligation and cooperation in the competition of the ecosystem) of individuals. Religion created a common social identity through the ritual participation and mythical exploration of the human connection to Nature.