by Max Barry

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by The Constitutional Monarchy of Zhen Dynasty. . 28 reads.

App (Feb 2020)

Name of your nation: The Zhen Dynasty

Location of your nation on the map: All territories administered by the PRC (de facto or otherwise; includes the SCS islands and Aksai Chin)

Capital City:

    The Forbidden City, Beijing

Demographics of your nation:

    Major ethnic groups include the Han and the Manchus, while minor ethnic groups include the Zhuang, Hui, Miao, Uyghurs, Yi, Tujia, Mongols, Tibetan, Buyei, Dong, Yao, Korean, Bai, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai, She, Lisu, Gelao, Lahu, Dongxiang, Va, Sui, Nakhi, Qiang, Tu, Xibe, Mulao, Kyrgyz, Daur, Jingpo, Salar, Blang, Maonan, Tajik, Pumi, Achang, Nu, Ewenki, Gin, Jino, De'ang, Uzbeks, Russian, Yugur, Bonan, Monba, Oroqen, Derung, Tatars, Hezhen, and Lhoba. The absence of the One-Child Policy means that population structure is more consistent with that of a Stage 3 Demographic Transition Model.


    1.7 billion



    $14.14 trillion USD trillion USD (nominal)

Leader of your nation:

    Emperor Dongfeng (r. 1932-present)

Government type:

    Bi-Prime-Ministerial Constitutional Monarchy.
    The legislature was comprised of the Provincial Assembly (16 assemblies for each of the provinces, 1 member for every 10,000 people), the National Assembly (100 representatives from each of the 17 provinces), and the Imperial Cabinet (13 members, each holding nobility peerage). Nationwide legislations passed through the National Assembly, then to the Imperial Cabinet, then to the 2 Prime Ministers. Should the Prime Ministers have disagreements, the Emperor would be called upon to provide a tiebreaker vote. Votes pass via simple majority.

Brief history of your nation:

    1768: anti-Qing dynasty Tiandihui rebel Zhao Liangming claimed to be a descendant of the Song dynasty, via lineage to the House of Zhao.

    1892: the Furen Literary Society was founded in Hong Kong. It was a revolutionary, anti-Qing group which advocated for the purifying of character in the highest possible degree, prohibition indulgences in the vices of the world, setting an example for future young Chinese, to improve in all possible ways Chinese and foreign knowledge both in a civil and a military point of view, to obtain a good knowledge of western science and learning, to learn how to be and act as a patriot, and to wipe out the unjust wrong the country has suffered. It would form the basis for many other revolutionary groups to follow.

    1898: Guangxu Emperor was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for drastic reform in education, military and economy under the Hundred Days' Reform. However, a coup launched by the Conservative Empress Dowager Cixi ejects Liang and Kang out of the Forbidden City, and places Guangxu under house arrest.

    1899: Liang and Kang form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to foster constitutional reform by promoting the ideas of "Resisting the Qing and restoring the Ming" that had been around since the days of the Taiping Rebellion.

    1901: The Qing government established three arsenals in Hanyang, Shanghai and Guangzhou, abolished the test of traditional Chinese Martial Arts, and founded the training system for officers. The New Army was formed as well, launched by a decree from eight provinces. At the time, New Army troops were by far the best trained and equipped, with the recruits being of a higher quality than the old army.

    1905: Sun Yat-sen's Revive China Society planned to launch an anti-Qing uprising in Guangzhou. However, plans were leaked out and more than 70 members, including Sun himself, were captured by the Qing government. Sun was later imprisoned, but would escape from prison.

    1906: Following appeals to the Guangfuhui, Emperor Protection Society, Furen Literary Society, the Tiandihui, and many other Chinese revolutionaries such as Cai E, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin by Liang Qichao and Kang Youwei, the Progressive Party was formed. Its goals would be to ensure the transition and return of China back to Chinese rule. The Progressive Party gained traction overseas as well, with chapters in 150 cities.

    1907: The Zhennanguan Uprising, which occurred in a pass on the Chinese-Vietnamese border, occurred when Sun Yat-sen escaped from prison and captured a fort in Zhennanguan. The Qing government sent troops to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into the mountainous areas. After the failure of this uprising, Sun was forced to move to Singapore due to anti-Sun sentiments within the revolutionary groups. The Progressive Party was able to consolidate its position as the main revolutionary force in China, but many supporters of Sun and his Tongmenghui continue to hold revolutionary hold in the south.

    1908: Progressive revolutionaries began to shift their call to the new armies, and began to infiltrate the New Army.

    1909: The first Chinese Provincial Assembly elections were held to elect the members of the Provincial Assemblies of China, as part of the New Policies under the Qing government as a move toward a constitutional monarchy.

    1910: Kang Youwei's Da Tongshu is published and circulated amongst the Progressive Party, and becomes its guiding manifesto. Da Tongshu proposed a utopian future world free of political boundaries and democratically ruled by one central government, wherein administrative districts would be self-governing under a direct democracy but loyal to a central government. Kang also had desires to end the traditional Chinese family structure leading him to become an early advocate of women's independence in China, whilst he also believed in gender equality and the dissolution of anti-female social barriers. The manifesto also called for the establishment of socialist institutions to overlook the welfare of each individual, government nurseries, schools, and retirement homes for the elderly, essentially promulgating a welfare state. The social policies dictated in the manifesto also lead to a surge of popular support for the Progressive Party.

    1911: A political protest movement against the Qing government's plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks turns violent, spurring the Wuchang Uprising. The New Army staged a mutiny against the Qing government, leading to a total collapse of the weak and obsolete Qing military, and the end of Qing rule over most of China, save the North.

    Yuan Shikai's Beiyang Army, one of the advanced, modernised armies in China as of 1911, was mobilised following the uprisings. Yuan Shikai used it as a tool of coercion to buy more power among both the revolutionaries and the Qing, with its loyalty eventually bought after a £25 million indemnity was given by the Qing. This would begin the Beiyang War (1911-1912), where the Progressive revolutionaries sought to defeat the Beiyang Army.

    The North–South Conference was held in Shanghai to discuss the post-revolutionary government. With the intervention of six foreign powers, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Russia, Japan, and France, the numerous revolutionary groups began to negotiate a settlement at the British concession in Shanghai, with foreign businessman Edward Selby Little acting as a negotiator. They agreed that Yuan Shikai would be a continuance of the Qing government, and must be destroyed as an enemy of the new state. After considering the possibility that the new nation might be defeated in a civil war or by foreign invasion, the various revolutionary groups and provinces all agreed to Liang's proposal to unify China under the Progressive government, which promised self-governance for administrative divisions/provinces under a larger, central government.

    The imperial resident of Tibet, Zhao Erfeng, was ousted.

    In Xinjiang, anti-Qing revolutionaries started the Dihua Uprising, followed by the Yili Uprising. This led to Qing governor Yuan Dahua fleeing and resigning to Yang Zengxin.

    1912: Zhang Jian drafted an abdication proposal for the abdication of Puyi. After being pressured by remaining Qing ministers, Puyi (age six) and Empress Dowager Longyu accepted Yuan's terms of abdication. However, this led to Yuan Shikai's unilateral proclamation of himself as Emperor, and subsequently to opposition by almost all the generals and officers of the Beiyang Army. The Beiyang Army eventually mutinied, defecting to the Progressive revolutionaries, as Yuan was exiled, and the Progressives marched into Beijing.

    As part of the monarchist reforms, an Emperor was needed. Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao were appointed to be the Prime Ministers of the new Dynasty, and a legislature was formalized. Elections were also held, where both men and women were given the right to vote.

    The Zhen Dynasty was formally proclaimed in December 12, 1912, with the ascension of Zhao Kunlun as Emperor Taizu.

    1913: The southern states, which are more loyal to Sun Yat-Sen's Tongmenghui, secede from the Zhen peacefully.

    1913-1933: Following the conclusion of the revolution, a period of stability and prosperity occurred. The period was far more stable than the preceding decades, allowing for economic growth and the start of ambitious government projects, some of which were resumed after 1945. Zhen foreign service officers negotiated diplomatic recognition from western governments and began to unravel the unequal treaties. Entrepreneurs, educators, lawyers, doctors, and other professionals created modern institutions to support the growing population, with social reforms enacted to implement the Progressive manifesto's ideas.

    The Rural Reconstruction Movement by James Yen massively improved on rural education, literacy, and public health programmes in rural regions. The number of high schools and elementary schools increased from 373 and 66 respectively to 1,911 and 261 respectively by 1932. A substantial increase in factories also occurred, increasing from 245 to 2,695. The China National Highways began construction, leading to the connection between Beijing and Shanghai by roads, and road connections to the capitals of all 16 provinces.

    1914-1918: China joins the Allies in WW1, providing combat assistance in East Asia and the Pacific, as well as providing labour in the form of the Chinese Labour Corps (CLC). The Taiyuan Arsenal, established in 1912, along with the various regional arsenals established across China in 1901, provided a solid base for its armaments industry. (The Zhen military wouldn't be as inept militarily as IRL - roughly equal in terms of capabilities against the Japanese or early Soviets.)

    1922: Japanese troops withdraw from the Shandong peninsula as per League of Nations mandate.

    1931: Japanese troops attempt to seize Manchuria following the Mukden Incident. However, they are quickly beaten back by the numerically superior and organised Zhen military, leading to a tense stalemate on both sides.

    1932: The ailing Emperor Taizu abdicated in favour of his son, who took on the name of Emperor Dongfeng.

    1937: The Marco Polo Bridge Incident formally begins the Second Sino-Japanese War.

    1945: The nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to Japan's surrender, and the return of Chinese territory in the North to the Dynasty. However, as Taiwan was not actually part of the Zhen since its inception in 1912, it remained in a technical limbo.

    1946: Reconstruction efforts and attempts to consolidate the economy resume. The Zhen begins rapprochement to the west. The last of the Unequal Treaties are overturned.

    1947: The Zhen royal family marries into the surviving descendants of the House of Aisin-Gioro, Borjigins, the House of Zhu, and various royal clans over the years to ascertain legitimacy.

    1950s-1970s: The Zhen intervenes in the Korean or Vietnamese wars.

    1970s-1980s: Detente with America, as Richard Nixon visits Beijing?

    2020: A succession crisis seems inevitable, as the current Emperor attains old age. A short political fallout ensues.

Major Differences:
- The absence of a one-child policy means that the population structure of the nation is more consistent with Stage 3 of the DTM (tl;dr: young people more balanced w/ old)
- Women's independence is more pronounced, as well as gender equality and the dissolution of anti-female social barriers
- A lot of socialist institutions to overlook the welfare of each individual, government nurseries, schools, and retirement homes for the elderly exist
- It's more of a welfare state

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