- DECEMBER, 1947
A MEETING IN MANAGUA!
MANAGUA, VAL VERDE — MORNING
| The Ministry of Peace, seeking to better its international relations, sought a meeting with officials in the Republic of Nicaragua. The Northern Federation's Ministry of Peace sent General Gunnar Einarson and his three staff members to meet with the representatives of the Republic of Nicaragua. The general wore what was clearly a black military-style uniform, showing that he was a member of the Northern Federation's Inner Party and a member of the military. On the right side of his uniform, resting atop where his heart would be, resides an emblem showing a black shield with black-outlined Nordic blade being shown vertically, blade down, in front of the shield. The words "Northern Federation - Ministry of Peace, encircling the emblem. On the left side of his uniform, he wore a wore a medal, made of aluminum, showing a Triquetra, a symbol used by the Northern Federation to represent the Party. The General arrived at the Aeropuerto Internacional de Las Mercedes in Managua. He was interested in the unique architecture he had seen, while on the way to the meeting, architecture that contrasts to the imposing concrete architecture of the Northern Federation. He, soon, arrived in the location of the meeting and began to wait for the Nicaraguan representative to arrive. He carried with his, several plans and proposals on paper, within a briefcase he carried with him, to the meeting. He was optimistic about the meeting and wondered what the representative would be like. The Ministry of Peace had the desire to establish diplomatic relations and an avenue of trade with Nicaragua. |
General Gunnar Einarson was met by a welcome party of the National Guard's highest ranking elite, various wealthy Ministers and Nationalist Liberal Party (Somoza's political front for the National Guard) representatives, these Ministers and politicians all amongst the family and closest friends of the Somoza Dynasty, keeping the government and national economy firmly grasped in his business monopoly. A motorcade with a shiny black 1947 Buick Roadmaster at lead transported General Einarson to Palacio La Loma, perched elegantly atop the Loma de Tiscapa, a small elevation of volcanic origin with significant importance in the history of Nicaragua. In its center is that which occupies the place of the crater of the extinct volcano. Lying south of downtown Managua its geographic elevation makes it a strategic place for its easy defense and complete view of the city.
Upon arrival, two National Guardsmen in US M1943 summer khaki uniforms and white M1 helmets escorted General Einarson to the Oficina de la Presidente de la República Nicaragüense. The office was large as a den, spacious, fit with a fireplace, dark cherry wood cabinetry and adorned with trophy Boar's heads and antique firearms, particularly a pair of nickel-plated, pearl handgripped Colt Single Action Army revolvers sitting on a display upon his desk.
Smoking a hand-rolled cigarillo, Presidente and Commander-in-Chief of the National Guard, Anastasio Somoza García, rises from his desk to greet General Einarson, already taking an accustom to him, as they are both military men. With a firm handshake, Gunnar is offered a seat and Somoza García takes his.
- Anastasio Somoza García: "Bienvenidos a Nicaragua, Señor General Einarson. I understand the Northern Federation is a nation prideful of it's military as we are here. I'm sure you will find what I have built here, a city as beautiful as Managua, can be achieved anywhere with the necessary amount of force and the will to succeed. Even a land of volcanoes and mountains."
LA DINASTÍA DORADA: SOMOZA'S DOMESTIC INVESTMENTS SHOW PROMISE OF BUSINESS, INFLUENCE EXPANSION
The streets of Managua eminate with Christmas lights dashing along city avenues and local plazas, Santa Claus impersonators await public transit after their shift, settling in the spirit de Navidad upon the bustling downtown. In the spirit of Christmas and in the down time in between the sugar harvest season, Presidente Anastasio Somoza García revealed a series of large-scale infrastructural projects to bolster the national economy which he, his family, and closest friends hold an iron fist monopoly on. For years, the center of economic focus was Nicaragua's gleaming emerald of the Central American isthmus, Managua. However, after meeting with private investors close to the Somozas, El Commandante Presidente Somoza García approved a wide scale project to establish a city in and around the mouth of the Matagalpa River, an area of proven arable sustainability necessary for sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. The project would clear forestation around the abandoned colonial fortification of Ciudad Colonial de San Cristóbal to establish sugar cane and sugar beet plantations. Ciudad Colonial de San Cristóbal was built by the Spanish Empire somewhere between 1609 and 1612 where the River Matagalpa meets the Atlantic.
The project would call for the construction of six sugar refineries and a collection of sugar mills in more rural areas that would provide employment to thousands of Nicaraguans willing to relocate to the proposed new economic city, Aguasdulces. Suburb style housing departments would be constructed to centralize the worker to the job site, from the plantation owners down to the refinery worker. Local Miskitos and other indigenous Nicaraguans living on the fringes of the Republic in eastern Nicaragua would also be allowed to bid for employment, though only after most of the slots are filled by "preferred" citizens. To Somoza, the Aguasdulces project was the perfect opportunity to begin expanding economic and military influence to Nicaragua's largely unexplored frontier in the east. Before the emergence of the sugar expansion opportunity, the Zelaya Departament remained largely out of Somoza's reach and for this reason he avoided, and thus, marginalized it through economic neglect and the centralization of government and economic power in Managua, the cornerstone of his regime.
The project demands the clearing of some 530,000 acres of rainforest and dense jungle around the 17th century fortified colonial remnant, on both sides of the Matagalpa River, to carve enough space for the sugar refining facilities as well as employee housing, small business for civil necessities, and a railway line linking Aguasdulces to Bluefields, the only other semi-major port, in eastern Nicaragua for ease of transport of import goods to Aguasdulces. Despite having the capability to receive foreign merchant shipping, the port of Bluefields rears sign of neglect as the aging port facilities are due for an upgrade, another component of the Aguasdulces economic infrastructure project.
In addition, Anastasio Somoza García declared himself chief executive of the Pacific-Atlantic Rail and Road project, coming forth with another multi-faceted infrastructural construction plan associated with the development of the Aguasdulces economic city. The incentive would be personally funded by Somoza García and would entail the construction of a transnational railway and highway network connecting the Pacific and Atlantic shores of Nicaragua, starting in the capital of Managua and ending in Aguasdulces, with rail connection to Bluefields. The project is estimated to take over a decade to complete all facets of the plan, with completion dates set at 1954 to construct Aguasdulces and 1963 at latest to complete the transnacional rail and highway. Having already completed the Pacific Railroad, connecting Managua to the principal port of Puerto Somoza, where a majority of Managua's imports are received, the Pacific-Atlantic Rail and Road project is not only immensely profitable to Somoza's business empire but a stamp of the Dynasty's influence in an otherwise out-of-reach region of the country.
- DECEMBER, 1947
A MEETING IN MANAGUA!
MANAGUA, VAL VERDE — MORNING
The general shakes hands with Anastasio Somoza García, presentign a strong handshake and grip. He then sat down onto the provided seat, with his briefcase at the side of the seat. He then picked up the briefcase, unlocked it, opened it, and removed some papers from his briefcase. The general portrayed a serious, yet friendly expression on his face. He was prepared for negotiations, but decided to get the primary point of the meeting out of the way, before making any offers. He then began to speak...
- | General Gunnar Einarson: "Thank you for this kind welcome. Your office has a very nice aesthetic to it. I would like to first explain the main reason why the Northern Federation requested the meeting. I came here today to discuss some important proposals in terms of the future of diplomatic relations and economic trade between our nations. The Northern Federation sees diplomatic relations with your nation as a very beneficial action and views trade with your nation as a priority, due to the currently low amount of exploitable resources presently in the Northern Federation. I am sure that you see having such relations with the Northern Federation just as beneficially as the Northern Federation itself. Your nation has a lot of resources that the Northern Federation is interested in. As a relatively new nation, having been founded in 1945, the Northern Federation is rather new to the international scene, so we have begun to seek international relations and trade with a number of nations as of this time, though most are still ongoing. Would you like to start with the diplomacy or the trade, first?" |
Anastasio Somoza García: "I would prefer to talk business, trade upfront, money talks and there is much of it to go around. I understand, from my personal research, the Northern Federation must be critically low on resources such as basic foods given climate, terrain, and remoteness. Nicaragua, while ever-striving to industrialize, is majority an agrarian economy, with fruit and food goods constituting a wide margin of the GDP of the national economy. I personally own a swathe of corn, sugar, tobacco plantations, rum distilleries, cattle ranches, and textile mills. Many of these resources aid Nicaragua's domestic food security, feeding the nation with as much domestic food product as we export. In this regard, I believe the Nicaraguan Republic could be of assistance, exporting basic food goods and consumer textiles."
| General Gunnar Einarson: "Yes, I see. The Northern Federation could a lot of agricultural goods. I especially like the idea of corn, sugar, cattle, and textiles, though we would also need a lot of fruit and vegetables. Does your good nation, also have any machinery, machine parts, or construction equipment that the Northern Federation could buy? We would need those as well. Once we get our industries up and running, we could also export some of it to your nation, as well, though by the Ministry of Plenty's count, we would not have the ability to export much other than aluminum until 1955, when most of the industry should be completed and running. We are currently researching and testing method of using seawater mineral extraction to extract much needed mineral supplies, but that is currently in the research stage and some testing indicates that we would need to constantly run multi-million liter tanks in the process in order to get meaningful quantities of anything other than salt and a few other minerals." |
- SEPTEMBER 1947
CAIRO, EGYPT — MIDDLE EAST
الوطن - العمل - استقلال
The Homeland - Labour - Independence
EGYPTIAN FISCAL AND BANKING REFORMS
The July 1947 Egyptian Revolution ended a British imperial political and economical monopoly infused with a Sultanate that had possessed absolute authority and direction to the Egyptian Nation. The colonial rule which had come to prominence when British troops occupied the country in 1882 as a result of the ‘Ubari Uprising, was to be swept up, along with all the relics it had come to possess : Monarchy, dynastic systems, old habits and old intellect. The new Egyptian Leadership, under the man who had campaigned under the slogans of the Young Egypt Party, Rashid Qaddab, was determined to engage in a ‘top-down revolution’ to the masses, as to see Egypt blossom as a modern nation state. The political caliber of the Young Egypt Party was built on rhetoric of anti-Imperialism, an ‘Egyptian-Arabist’ patriotic synthesis, secularism, harsh critique of existing social classes and demands to remove domestic economic monopolies and social inequalities that manifested themselves in Egypt’s agricultural sector. Approximately two months after the enthronement of the Young Egypt Party into office and the rise of the individuals such as Qaddab and Aziz Sedqi as the new drivers of Egypt’s destiny, the fledgling independent state had begun the long process of creating economic opportunities for the common citizens.
Sedqi, a close aide to Qaddab, graduated from Cairo University in 1944 with a degree in Engineering. He would later earn a doctorate in Economic Planning from the prestigious Harvard University prior to returning to his Homeland and getting involved in its struggle against foreign domination. Influenced by liberal economic policies, yet involved in the politics of populism, it would be required for a man of his accomplishments to theorize a system that could fulfill the unique needs of the Egyptian civil economy. For Egypt to stand in the world as the developed country it wished to be, it would need to radically redefine systems of infrastructure and public services. As a means to integrate the private sector into the economy and thereby end the stagnant and unpopular business monopolies. Sedqi would logically conclude that to fully realize these ambitious projects, Egypt would require a strong financial and monetary system to sustain them.
The country would thereby need an organization to regulate, manage and protect its currency flow, thus helping to create the financial conditions required for economic prosperity and guard against mismanagement. Seqdi was able to lobby his party to recognize such, and did so very successfully. Thus, Qaddab motioned for the creation of the Egyptian Central Bank on September 14th 1947, with the purposes of issuing and managing the Egyptian Lira, ensuring fiscal responsibility, maintaining and regulating payment systems in Egypt and providing input to the national government with respect to overall budget planning. Domestic banks have historically been modeled on European systems such as in Britain or France, due to the large historic economic influences from those states. This was to be no different. The experienced bankers and financiers of Egypt had abided by such systems even prior to colonial rule and Seqdi deemed it self defeating to risk financial fluctuations by abolishing such capable protocols instead of developing them. The national financial system was for the foreseeable future, more secure than ever due to its enhanced financial infrastructure and institutional development.
Weeks after permitting an opposition party to legally, openly form and operate, El Jefe Generalísimo Rafael Trujillo ordered the arrest of all it's members during a public political forum by the notorious Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM). All members were taken to "El Matadero", a fitting nickname given to La Victoria National Penitentiary, Trujillo's famously rumored torture house. After days of torture, a university student confessed to intelligence officers that leftist Professor Juan Bosch amassed cadres of Dominican exiles in Cuba and was planning a Christmas Eve invasion of the Dominican Republic to overthrow Rafael Trujillo with a Cuban supported and trained expeditionary force of Dominican exiles with the approval of Cuban President Ramón Grau. Upon the confession, the intelligence agents notified Generalísimo Trujillo immediately and informed him of the plotted Christmas Eve exile invasion, and in turn Trujillo without hesitance placed la Guardia Nacional on high alert and issued nationwide radio broadcast declaring the Dominican Republic officially under martial law for the entirety of Christmas week.
Barracks of the Guardia Nacional clattered with boots across the nation as The Guard took to the streets, with numbers especially dense in the capital, Ciudad Trujillo, heavily fortifying the capital with roving platoons of US summer khaki and US M1943 olive drab green uniforms, sharply topped off with various US M1 helmets ranging from green, to black, to white. They brandish M1 Garand rifles, bayonets fixed, others with Browning Automatic Rifles, roving the sparse city streets in Guard-marked pickup trucks and Jeeps enforcing martial law requirements in tandem with la Policía Nacional, a sub-branch of the Dominican National Guard. Anyone found on the streets is immediately asked to produce "la Palmita", a Partido Dominicano (Trujillo's Political front) registration card, signature for the palm tree and portrait of Trujillo on the cover. All Dominicans must register as members of the Dominican Party, the sole legal party in the Dominican Republic, in order to receive a Palmita card, those who do not register run the risks associated with being unable to produce la Palmita when ordered by police or military.
During the course of the martial law imposition, the shouts of National Guardsmen making arrests and barking orders at bewildered citizens brazenly defying the state of emergency filled the air. Trujillo made very well sure that any attempt at domestic assistance in the exile invasion would be futile as they would be arrested as soon as they left their homes. Additionally, gunshots were reported across the country notably in the capital where El Jefe's safety was most paramount, as dissident civilians caught out without La Palmita during the martial order were dragged into alley ways and executed without question. Before the exiles could even get prepared for the invasion, an outgoing call from Ciudad Trujillo to Santiago de Cuba, Cuba was made, informing Professor Juan Bosch of the futility of the operation after explaining the current martial lockdown in the Dominican Republic. Plainly, no matter where or how they landed, the exile invasion was doomed to be thwarted by the numerically larger, well equipped, and well organized Guardia Nacional Dominicano. Despite pressure from Cuban President Ramón Grau to proceed as planned, alternate pressure from the Dominican Republic, and the threat of Nicaraguan, US assistance to maintain Trujillo's seat of power in the Carribean, the planned invasion was aborted.
Anastasio Somoza García: "Many of the ranches I own do possess excess agricultural machinery that could be sold, tractors and the like. Aside from that, machinery isn't exactly exportable by Nicaragua. However, your second proposal sounds promising tell me more about this process of seawater mineral extraction, in the long-term is this a good investment that will yield mineral, metallurgy imports to Nicaragua?"
| General Gunnar Einarson: "While the research and experimentation is still ongoing, I can provide some details. Research began when the Northern Federation was looking for alternatives to importing all the minerals and materials we need for our future industries. It was discovered that, by boiling away seawater, some mineral deposits are left over. Right now, we are using a large tank to boil away seawater, in order to determine the concentrations of minerals in the water that may have been missed when testing on a smaller scale. So far, the results have been promising, as a vast amount of mineral deposits have been found in seawater. We have even detected trace amounts of lithium, aluminum, and other metals useful for industry. Once research is completed, a number of large boiling facilities shall be built in order to separate the minerals from the seawater. The process only has steam as an emissions source, so the process is environmentally friendly. The major downside is that these facilities would be a vulnerability, so we would likely need to place backup facilities underground in case a war ever breaks out. So far 100 large 10 million liter tanks are planned for construction for this project." |
Anastasio Somoza García: "I would be willing to invest in such a project, my cousin owns a construction company, perhaps it wouldn't be much but basic materials could be provided toward the project, additional to my personal investment. I would like to propose lending my investment to cover a five year period, with a renewable five year term upon expiration. If we see improvement in the next five years, I will be happy to provide an additional five year investment."
| General Gunnar Einarson: "That sounds reasonable. Your contribution of basic building materials will be beneficial for the Northern Federation. I do not know why you are saying 'investment' in a vague manner. Your contribution shall greatly help the Northern Federation to obtain its goal by the year 1955. By the way, did we ever discuss the specifics on how much food you would be sending? Once that is out of the way, we can move on to the diplomatic part of our meeting." |
Anastasio Somoza García: "There's nothing vague about the investment, I'm willing to put my personal wealth forward to aid the project, I will pay for project needs covering the next five years and at the end of that term, we can discuss another monetary investment to surmount another five years toward furthering the project, if significant advancement is reported. I'm sure I won't be the only investor, but I want to reap the rewards that are at the end of this. We both can. As for food imports to the Northern Federation, this matter is based upon the demand of your national economy, it's not up to me to decide how much is exported. This would be up to my economic Ministers of agriculture and economy and the like. I'm more than ready to move onto the diplomatic half of this meeting when you are, Señor General Einarson."
During the Soviet occupation of East Germany a loyal communist, a trustworthy figure, Walter Ulbricht was appointer to the position of Bundesgouverneur. His primary task was to keep the german populace under control, while also trying to fight the total devastation left after the war. Even after a few years under occupation, large soviet garrison still stays in big cities, maintaining martial law, and more than half of eastern germans have food shortages. Even with help from the Soviet Union, the situation stays dire. Maybe Bundesgouverneur could have done more, but such factors as lack of authority and limited executive powers, unpopularity among common people (mostly due to federal governor being a hardline socialist), conflicts with the soviet government due to Walter being a Stalin supporter before, and even resistance from other left opposition makes most of the actions taken by the governor uneffective.
January 1948, shortly after the new year.
This was an uneasy choice that Walter had to do. But the last straw was reports of massive issues with heating both in the cities and rural areas. On the 7th of January, a series of secret telegrams were sent to different social block countries, asking for new industrial equipment, coal, oil, or even food. On the evening of the same day now an official request was sent to Moscow, asking to give governor more executive power and increase subsidies that flow to Germany.
The Ethiopian Times
(Publications available in Amharic and French)
Emperor Haile Selassie Coups Government After Pro Republican Protests
ADDIS ABABA-Emperor Haile Selassie couped the Democratically elected government and proposed himself as Emperor for life with supreme power over the people. His first act was order the arrest of Prime Minister Aman Dula and Parliament. His second act was to sign an order of martial law upon the country.
The Prime Minister and his cabinet has fled the country to Paris, France. The official opposition has fled to Paris as well. Prime Minister Aman Dula declared the establishment of Federal Republic of Ethiopia. He also stated the he, his cabinet, and the opposition are currently writing a constitution. Which will be Democratic and free and will be a Western style democracy.
Over 100,000 people have come out to protest in Addis Ababa. The military has announced they are formally on the side of the Republicans. The Miltary and the Royal Guards faced off in the streets of Addis Ababa. No shots were fired, but the standoff countines with no end in site.
- JANUARY 1948
CAIRO, EGYPT — MIDDLE EAST
الوطن - العمل - استقلال
The Homeland - Labour - Independence
THE PARTY & NATION REVOLUTION
- "For us there is only one attitude to take when developing your Homeland. This attitude is that we must seek all channels of modern knowledge and ideas. There is no other attitude that any sound person can take aside from that. The future of Egypt is rooted in the future of Humanity, that is : progress, determination, equality and education. The independence that we have gained through resistance is not to be squandered! We have rightly blamed old ways and systems for our situation. No Egyptian intends for our state to fall into the same trap as those decedent ways. Therefore, the citizen has the total right to seize new opportunities for livelihood based on nothing but their own convictions. Not the convictions of any foreign entity or of any corrupting influence or of any dishonest official. We have asserted that right but we have yet to assert physical opportunity! It must be assured that we shall overthrow national poverty just as we overthrew the English tyranny! "
- RASHID QADDAB
Ever the visionary, Rashid Qaddab would address the Egyptian public in a fiery and charismatic speech, laying out his key ‘revolutionary components’ that will direct the country. It was to be a prelude to the beginning to a widespread socioeconomic restructuring and remoulding that would play into the hands of the wider Egyptian reformation movement. The social pyramid was to be overthrown and replaced to ensure future social cohesion and to ultimately weaken the traditional classes of the country. Under the slogan of the ‘Party & Nation’ which signified the paramount role the Young Egyptians would take in vanguarding the ideals of the 1947 Egyptian Revolution and the Republic which followed, this widespread public mobilization was to commence.
The first revolutionary component of this national program was to fixate on social services. Egypt’s educated classes were concentrated in the major urban and economic centres of Cairo and Alexandria. In comparison the majority of rural Egypt lacked the same educational infrastructure and thereby standard of learning. Around two thirds of the population are illiterate and thereby unable to partake in the wider social project of modernization. Qaddab would say “it is required that our literate citizens be organized like a division in the battle against the country's illiteracy” to insight the formation of the ‘Literacy Corps’ so that those with a high school diploma be required to serve and fight illiteracy across Egypt. A similar model is to be applied to the ‘Health Corps’ to extend public healthcare to areas which lacked such, the ‘Agricultural Corps’ to teach peasants modern methods of agriculture and keeping livestock and ‘Construction Corps’ to build public baths, schools and libraries; installing water pumps and power generators for running water and electricity. The two institutions were to work hand in hand in ensuring social cohesion and development in the interest of holding the theory of Sa’ida. A Young Egyptian slogan which translates to ‘happiness’ and thus demands a ‘strong mind in a healthy body’ as the core tenant of the Egyptian citizen. The needs of all the citizens, rural, rich, urban dwelling and poor are to be met as a means to advance widespread national improvement and construct a society, prideful of its service and accomplishments in the sole duty of endless advancement.
The second revolutionary component was by far the most major as it related to land reform. Less than six percent of Egypt's population owned more than 65% of the land in the country, and less than 0.5% of Egyptians owned more than one-third of all fertile land.These major owners had almost autocratic control over the land they owned and charged high rents which averaged 75% of the income generated by the rented land. These high rents coupled with the high interest rates charged by banks plunged many small farmers and peasants into debt. “An indebted citizen which lacks social mobility is a citizen which has not seen the benefits of our revolution” Qaddab proclaimed “therefore it is the duty of the state to ensure they regain their rights and dignity”. Aziz Siqdi, the influential economic mastermind behind the Young Egypt government stated that the current monopolized land system subjected the Egyptian peasantry to “disease, hunger and death” on top of the “squandering and loss of agricultural output”. It was announced that the Egyptian government would proceed throughout the revolution, purchase land from landlords as ‘fair and reasonable prices” and then resell them to the peasants below market value with a loan that can be paid back over 25 years. Siqdi added that the most economically productive and best managed plots of land will gain levels of financial exemption, as a means to incentivize the reorientation of the peasantry into an emergent entrepreneurial class to serve as a solid foundation for further agricultural development.
The third revolutionary component was relevant to the political emancipation of Egyptian women. In the projected March 1948 National Referendum which will reinforce the legitimacy of the republican government, Qaddab has stated that women, who have played an important role in Egypt’s struggle against colonialism via figures such as Safiya Zaghloul, will have the constitutional right to vote and run for legislative offices, marking Egypt as the first Arab country to do so. The announcements, all of them, have undoubtedly shocked the core of Egyptian society especially that of the landlords and clergy, who remain the unofficial opposition to the Young Egypt Party and Qaddab’s policies. On behalf of Qaddab the revolution is projected to be a political success to fully consolidate Egypt under the vanguardship of his program. However some members of his party question the policies are extensive enough, especially from the ascendent ‘Harakayyin’ faction of younger cadres.
| General Gunnar Einarson: "In terms of diplomacy, the Northern Federation desires to set up formal diplomatic relations with your nation, including the setting up of embassies between our nations. As a part of embassies, they are all to be located within the 6th tower, once built. Until the Ministry Towers are completed, there embassies would be located in buildings in the current government complex to the south of the Ministry Plaza being constructed. Perhaps an unders-sea cable could eventually be built in order to enable greater communications between our countries." |
Argentinian Commonwealth - La Rio de la Plata
Avery Escallias-Amelios, upon hearing the news of FDR's death, would grieve and make an address wearing a black veil and dress. "He was a good man, and a real progressive, though we did have our differences." |
| She also pledged to grow Argentina artistically, and throwing more money into the Argentinian Infrastructure. Building more roads, bridges, and so on. Argentina also had to invest and take care of itself financially - putting some of its monies in Swiss and British banks (the Bank of London)
Argentina would also recognize India as a country.
JANUARY 1948 | SHANDONG, ANHUI AND HENAN, CHINA
As of this morning Shandong was officially reclaimed by the Kuomintang and large celebrations were held in Weifang. The attack was arranged by Chiang Kai-Shek, the president of China.
NORTHERN ANHUI AND HENAN, CHINA
The Invasion started with the Kuomintang finishing off the encircled Communist troops in the Provinces of Anhui and Henan, the attack was swift and merciless with almost the entire Communist army being destroyed, those who did manage to escape couldn't flee anywhere else but onto the Shandong peninsula where they once again found themselves encircled by the Kuomintang's troops since Chiang had ordered a division of the army to stand back around the base of the peninsula and not let any fleeing Troops through.
SHANDONG PENINSULA, CHINA
Now the Communist troops found themselves trapped again, they couldn't break through the Kuomintang's defense and they couldn't get any reinforcements or new food since the Kuomintang had naval superiority. This meant that the Chinese red army would slowly start to die from attrition, and they wouldn't be able to fight. Chiang wisely made the decision to wait until January since the heavy snow fall would make it hard to fight and many Communist troops would die.
SHANGDON PENINSULA, CHINA
The already small Communist army started dying like fleas, Chiang ordered his troops to start closing in on the Communist troops. The Chinese red army made some resistance but it was futile and they were entirely shattered, Shandong was liberated at long last.
Quote from Chiang Kai-Shek's speech
"Now that we have freed our Brothers in Shandong from the shackles of Communism we must continue to do so unless we want to end up like Russia, I say we march north towards Manchuria and finish of these wretched Communists for good! Long live the kuomintang!"
- Friday, Janurary 1948
• Fortino Bongiovanni , Prime Minister of Italy
• Mario Scelba , Interior Minister
• Pietro Campilli , Finance Minister
• Emilio Sereni , Communist Minister of Public Works
• Luigi Gasparotto , Defence Minister
【 Bongiovanni's Cabinet Meeting 】
Prime Minister Bongiovanni winning reelection set anti communist minds at ease in the northern region of the country, and many within parliament. Continuous conflict in Sicily and the southern region have left a stain on the newly elected third tenure of Bongiovanni’s administration. The country’s economic standing remains the main issue, especially among those in the agricultural south who have turned their attention to more socialist-like polices demanding more government assistance, financial support for local businesses and then some. Devastated by the Great War, many Italians are looking for a way out of this economic hardship. The Prime Minister and his Cabinet members in Rome are eager to move the country forward. The newly enacted constitution drafted in 1946 has been enacted one century after the Constitution of the Kingdom of Italy, the Statuto Albertino, had been enacted. The branches of government have been established, an executive, legislative, and judicial council. Weary of its dictatorship past, it is difficult to modify the Constitution; to do so (under Article 138) requires two readings in each House of Parliament and, if the second of these are carried with a majority (i.e. more than half) but less than two-thirds, a referendum.
| Scelba | With the way things are, we ought to just put our heads on the same stick they put Mussolini’s on, we need to pass a reasonable budget that adheres to our country's economic situation! |
| Scelba scoffs as he looks over from him at the table where Prime Minister Bongiovanni was reading the economic statistics given to him by his economic advisors. |
| Campilli | We need to pass a budget that Parliament can pass first of all Scelba, and if we can’t do that if the socialists and the communist parties are working together to sabotage this administration by not agreeing on a substantial budget. We need to make spending cuts in areas to make up for what they want. |
| Bongiovanni | Which would have to be defense spending, I’m afraid. We need to funnel money into these government programs especially for the southern regions of the country, it would only be a matter of time before that would be exploited which will mean more popularity for our enemies to take advantage of. The end result is to not turn Italy into a soviet satellite by the end of the day here gentlemen. Now, spending cuts where we may, but we cannot afford to look weak in these areas of more government assistance programs if that is what the majority of the people want. |
| The Minister of Public Works looked at his colleagues with disgust. He then nodded at the Prime Minister with agreement. |
| Sereni | Of course Mr. Prime Minister. My department needs as much more planning into government programs such as continuing building our terrible infrastructure after the Great War, and making sure that our friends to the south. It’s only fair that we consider all aspects and not just the industrialised north. Now I- |
| Minister of Defence Gasparotto interjects. |
| Gasparotto: | If you’re gonna gut my department we might as well be on the same message that it’s for our economic benefit for ALL Italians Mr. Sereni. And while we may look to cut spending for our defence for more social and economic issues, we can be certain that splinter cells of possible soviet influenced communist radicals can cause issues predominantly in the southern region.. |
| He snapped his neck at the Communist Party Public Works Minister and gave him a look of disgust. |
| Bongiovanni: |Now, I made this cabinet so that all views can be heard from all major parties to make positive, effective change to our country. I refuse to allow this to continue this back and forth because this right here holds a country back from success. Get on message! |
| Bongiovanni shouted. The room was silent for several moments before the Prime Minister picked up his pen to look at today’s times table |
| Bongiovanni: |It’s Friday, and none of you will leave this room until we come up with a budget to present to parliament. I do hope I make myself clear on this matter, because if not so help me God everyone will be replaced with those who can get the job done. I offer every single one of you to make effective change to this republic, and to build an Italy greater than what Mussolini promised and ultimately failed to do, be part of that change and don’t add to the noise. |
| He then glances at his Interior minister sitting opposite, Scelba then looks down at his notes in sorrow before Bongiovanni looks around at his cabinet. |
| Bongiovanni: | Let's continue, please I want to have a drafted proposal by Monday gentlemen. |
- JANUARY, 1948
A NEW CONSTITUTION!
USSR, MOSCOW — MORNING
| One of the most adamant goals of General Secretary Georgy Zhukov was destalinization, and equal application of Soviet law, which generally never happened, with the most prominent example being that Beria was able to rape dozens if not hundreds of women without punishment. Nevertheless, once Zhukov was made General Secretary, he ordered the arrest of Beria and he was subsequently sentenced due a lifetime of hard labour in Siberia. However, he was later beaten to death by fellow prisoners. The prisoners in question were subsequently freed by Zhukov. In a speech to the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union, Zhukov announced his intention to greatly change the government system of the Soviet Union, the law and more; in effect, he was announcing his intention to significantly change the Soviet Union’s constitution. Granted, the conservative base of the Communist Party are the base of the Congress was shocked, because most of them were corrupt individuals that would naturally get arrested under a new constitution. Zhukov, after the speech, had the Red Army, who was fiercely loyal to him, arrest the entire Congress. This would be the start of the “Zhukov Purges”. Within 3 days well over 15,000 people were arrested and executed, some had ties to Stalin, some were corrupt, some were criminals, some were obstacles and the rest were seen as blind Communist Party members. |
| Zhukov, single handedly, approved the new constitution which radically changed, and centralized the government of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Government was now structured like this, there would be the legislative branch, called the People’s Assembly of the Soviet Union, there would be an executive branch, called the Council of Ministers and the Judicial branch which in practice would be the most powerful body in the Soviet Union. The People’s Assembly of the Soviet Union would be an elected branch and would have competitive elections. All political parties would have to be communist in nature, communist, as in the economic system. Parties opting for alternative economic systems would not be allowed. Independents were allowed as usual. There would be 1750 seats, one seat for each 100,000 people. The electoral map would be created using mathematical methods, with each district being created through the closest concentration of the 100,000 people. The People’s Assembly after its election would select the Premier, which would serve as the Head of Government and Head of State. The Premier would then select the Council of Ministers, with approval for each nomination needed by the High Court of the Soviet Union. The 17 High Court seats were selected by the Intelligentsia Soviet, an assembly made up of Academics, Engineers, Scientists and Doctors and Professors. The Intelligentsia Soviet had 300 seats in it, which were chosen by the respective Unions (Doctors Unions, Engineer Unions etc). The High Court’s responsibility was to ensure equal application of the law, review orders, laws and more. The High Court would select a Chief Prosecutor who in turn would have the power to charge any individual in the Soviet Union with crimes, including the Premier and any member of the Communist Party. |
| The High Court would be the setting in which trials would take place for any individual charged by the Chief Prosecutor. The unique part of The High Court’s powers was its ability to seize the power of executive control of the Armed Forces for up to 30 days in cases of extreme anti constitutional actions by the government. The Armed Forces would be able to make arrests, restore order and more under the direction of the court. The incentive for the Armed Forces to follow the orders of the court would be the fact that all of its members would receive 25% pay increases during this 30 day period. Following the implementation of the Constitution, the first free, competitive election in the Soviet Union would take place. As per the constitution, during the election, the High Court has exclusive control over the Armed Forces and is responsible for ensuring its integrity. Voting is mandatory for everyone above the age of 16. The results are as follows: |
1948 PEOPLE’S ASSEMBLY ELECTION.
1. COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION, 1241 SEATS
SOVIET CENTRISM, COMMUNIST, PRO UNION LED BY GEORGY ZHUKOV
2. GREEN SOCIALIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION, 509 SEATS
SOCIALISM, COMMUNISM, ENVIRONMENTALISM, ANTI WAR. LED BY IVAN LUROV
3. AGRARIAN PARTY, 42 SEATS
PRO AGRICULTURE, ANTI INDUSTRIALIZATION, PRO UNION. LED BY SERGEY MAKOV
4. STEEL WORKERS OF THE SOVIET UNION, 25 SEATS
SOCIALISM, COMMUNISM, PRO INDUSTRIALIZATION, LED BY VLADIMIR BAIKAL
5. THE PEACE SOCIETY OF THE SOVIET UNION, 19 SEATS
COMMUNISM, ANTI WAR, ISOLATIONISM, LED BY SOFIA YAHONTOV
| Officially, all parties ran under the “Communist Alliance of the Soviet Union”, and will jointly select the Premier. Georgy Zhukov was selected as Premier of the Soviet Union and in turn would select individuals to the Council of Ministers. |
The Ethiopian Times
(Publications available in Amharic and French)
Republicans Seize Control/ Federal Republic of Ethiopia Proclaimed
ADDIS ABABA- Prime Minister Aman Dula arrived in Addis Ababa on Monday. Last Friday the military barged into into the Jubilee Palace where the Emperor was staying. Military officials arrested the Emperor and the entire Royal Court. Prime Minister Aman Dula the man who started the first Democratic Revolution and established a Constitutional Monarchy has established a Federal Republic.
Prime Minister Aman Dula now President Aman Dula has proclaimed the Federal Republic of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Republic will be ruled under a democracy and a Constitution with rights and freedoms. Under President Aman Dula's administration the Royal Guards have been arrested as well. This a new historic era for Ethiopia and it's people. President Aman Dula has promised modernization and westernization of the country. It is unclear what will happen with the Emperor, the Royal Family, and the Royal Court. Parliament has proposed a Imperial tribunal to try all involved with the coup.
Play me: https://youtu.be/_38SWIIKITE
- BUILDING THE BOMB PT 1: WHAT WAS KNOWN
Friday, 12 December 1947 A.D. (Gregorian)—
In the 11th Year of the Reign of George IV of Windsor.
- RAF Aldermaston, Newbury, Berkshire, England, the United Kingdom
- | On 12 December 1947 several dozen specialists are assembled in secret at an active Royal Air Force base in Southern England. Having been retired from military usage officially for conversion into a government-sponsored civil flight school, the Ministry of Supply had purchased the airfield in June of 1947. Tasked with finding a location to house Britain’s High Explosive Research project in the aftermath of the Manhattan Project. American rebuffs to share some nuclear secrets with the U.K. after the end of the war was an undeniable insult in the eyes of London. With the Soviet Union occupying sites as close as former East Prussia, Britain felt understandably threatened.
British- and by extension Canadian, and American scientists had made progress on plutonium implosion and gun-type devices. Such research had culminated in the Trinity nuclear test of the codenamed “Gadget” prototype of the Mark III Y-1561 “Fatman” bomb of Nagasaki infamy. British physicists from the Universities of Cambridge and Birmingham had been instrumental in R&D and they would now serve in a similar capacity for Britain’s program. The project shall be led by Sir James Chadwick, discoverer of the neutron and Professor of physics at Cambridge, and the Lord William Penney. Other chief scientists included Niels Bohr, Sir Geoffrey Taylor, James Tuck, Sir Ernest Titterton, and Klaus Fuchs. Scientists from abroad included George Laurence (Canada), Mark Oliphant (Australia), Laurence Bragg (Australia), and several scientists from the Faculties of Physics and Mathematics at the University of Kananga in the Kongo. Their task would be to develop a plutonium implosion device with a max yield equivalent to 25 kilotons of TNT.
The decision had been made to create a plutonium implosion device due to plutonium-240’s high rate of spontaneous fission, which would make a simple gun-type device highly ineffective. Firing the one half of the fissile material into the other may have resulted in lower yield explosion, which Britain wished to avoid. The weapon would instead use a subcritical 6.2kg gallium-plutonium alloy core, containing an internal modulated neutron initiator and encased in a tungsten neutron reflector. The tungsten neutron reflector would be encircled by 6.5cm of tamper made from unenriched uranium-238. This tamper would be protected by a thin layer of boron shielding. After the plutonium fissions begins, the boron shielding would be destroyed allowing for highly energised neutrons to create fissions in the unenriched uranium-238. It would utilise a neutron generator composed by gold-plated beryllium engraved with polonium-210. The explosive force generated outside the core would forcibly bind the beryllium and polonium-210, causing them to quickly begin emitting neutrons and beginning the nuclear chain reaction.
The core would undergo fission after being heavily compressed by an external explosion. The explosive pressure (over 6x10^6 atm) would cause the plutonium’s density to increase by double is maximum density and its critical mass would decrease substantially. The critical mass would decrease by such a factor, that the explosion generated by this device would require only 1/10th of the fissile fuel required by the gun-type Hiroshima bomb. The explosion would occur within a sphere of 33 RDX-TNT explosive charges aligned in a truncated icosahedron shape. This layer of 45cm thick explosive was synchronized to explode within a range of 10 nanoseconds, after which several explosive lenses made from Baratol would direct it’s energy into a compressive force onto 12cm thick aluminium casing to better direct the converging shockwaves. It was this aluminium “push layer” which would compress the core’s boron shielding.
The plutonium-239 necessary for the device would need to be synthesised using a series of “breeder reactors” which, using a process of neutron capture and beta decay, would turn unenriched uranium-238 into plutonium-239 and plutonium-240. The plutonium is extracted from spent fuel which is regularly changed at two to-be-built graphite-moderated reactors at Sellafield. Two reactors called Windscale Pile 1 and Windscale Pile 2 would be built, based on the British Experimental Pile Zero reactor, at Sellafield for the price of £35 million. Spent fuel rods are to be dissolved in boiling and concentrated nitric acid and filtered profusely to remove any solids. The dissolved uranium and plutonium is treated with a kerosene-based fluid containing TriButyl Phosphate. Plutonium is extracted by using a reducing agent such as N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine, which converts it into a +3 oxidation state. The various methods in conjunction would allow the British government to produce several kilograms of fissile, weapons grade plutonium per month. The nuclear fuel for these nuclear piles would be enriched using the gaseous diffusion methods pioneered by British scientists during the Manhattan Project. Uranium ore from the Kongo would be dissolved in nitric acid, treated with ammonia, reduced with hydrogen, treated with hydrofluoric acid, oxidised with fluorine and thereby converted to uranium hexafluoride. This gas would then be forced through semipermeable membranes and long tunes made from non-reactive polymers. Overtime the slight weight difference between uranium-235 and uranium-238 would led to a slow separation of the two isotopes.
With a plan and funding in place the site as Sellafield and RAF Aldermaston will the core of the weaponised segment of the U.K.’s nuclear program. Facilities will commence construction immediately and are due for completion in 1950. From there the creation and testing of a nuclear weapon would be possible within 24 months from the commencement of operations. Prime Minister Clement Attlee was absolutely determined to beat the Soviet Union in the race to build their own respective nuclear weapons. It was imperative for Britain to control the world’s most powerful weapons as it always had, and it would do so under any circumstances. |